Friday, September 29, 2006

ke Enam

hey.. you read first.. I will try one of these days..

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| o_,_7 _|| . _o_7 _|| 4_|_|| o_w_, |
|( : / (_) / ( . |
|___________ _________ _________ _______|

More On Muawiyah

Here is more evidence on Muawiyah from the History and Hadith:

============ ====
On his Character
============ ====
al-Hasan al-Basri said:

Muawiyah had four flaws, and any one of them would have been a serious

1. His appointment of trouble makers for this community so that he
stole its rule without consultation with its members, while there
was a remnant of the Companions and possessors of virtue among

2. His appointment of his son as his successor after him, a drunkard
and a winebibber who wears silk and plays tunburs.

3. His claim about Ziyad (as his son), while the Messenger of God
(PBUH&HF) has said: 'The child belongs to the bed, and the
adulterer should be stoned.'

4. His killing of Hujr and his companions. Woe unto him twice for Hujr
and his companions.

Sunni references :
- History of al-Tabari, English version, The Events of Year 51 AH, v8, p154
- History of Ibn al-Athir, v3, p242
- al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah, by Ibn Kathir, v8, p130 who mentions the first
crime as: "His fighting Ali."
- History of Ibn Kathir, v3, p242
- Khilafat Mulukiyat, Syed Abul Ala Maududi, pp 165-166

Here is some background on the Tragedy of Hujr:

============ ========= =
Who was Hujr Ibn 'Adi?
============ ========= =
In an effort to eradicate freedom of _expression, Muawiyah started off with
the killing of Hujr, who was a famous Tabi'i and the respected Sahabi of
Imam Ali (AS). During the time of Muawiyah when Imam Ali (AS) was being
cursed from the pulpits of the mosques, it caused a lot of pain and grief
to the Muslims, but people were patient. However Hujr in Kufah could not
further bear this and in resistance Hujr used to praise Imam Ali (AS) and
curse Muawiyah. Mughairah who was the Governor of Kufah at that time was
considerate towards Hujr. However, during the Governership of Ziyad, when
Basra was also included with Kufah, differences emerged between Ziyad and
Hujr. Ziyad used to swear (say bad words) and Hujr used to reply to Ziyad.
During this period Hujr also corrected Ziyad when he delayed the Friday
Prayer. Eventually Hujr along with his twelve companions were arrested on
the following charges

- Hujr had organized a group and he used to swear at Muawiyah
- He instigates people to fight against Muawiyah
- He claims that the Caliphate belongs to Imam Ali and his
progeny (AS)
- He supports Abu Turab (nickname of Imam Ali (AS))
- He sends his blessings on Imam Ali (AS)

So under these charges, these personalities were sent to Muawiyah, and
Muawiyah ordered their killing. Before their execution, the executors said
to them:

We have been ordered that if you show negative feelings towards Ali
and curse him you shall be free to go, otherwise you shall have to die
(shall be killed).

Upon hearing this Hujr and his companions refused to do what they were
asked to do, and Hujr replied:

I can't utter those words from my tongue that would anger my Lord!

Following this they were killed, with the exception of Abdurrahman Ibn
Hassaan who was sent by Muawiyah to Ziyad with the order that Ziyad himself
should brutally kill him, and thereby, he was buried alive.

Sunni references :
- Histroy of al-Tabari, v4, pp 190-206
- al-Isti'ab, by Ibn Abd al-Barr, v1, p135
- History of Ibn Kathir, v3, pp 234-242
- al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah, v8, pp 50-55
- History of Ibn Khaldoon, v3

============ ========= ========= ========
Reviving the Customs of the Jahiliyyah
============ ========= ========= ========
Amputations of the head and moving the heads from one place to another,
the mistreatment of the dead bodies out of sheer passion of revenge, that
was prevalent during the days of ignorance (al-Jahiliyyah) , started again
among the Muslims during this era.

Case 1:

The very first head that was amputated from the body during the
Islamic period was of Ammar Ibn Yasir (RA), the famous companion of
the Messenger of Allah (PBUH&HF). Ahmad Ibn Hanbal in his Musnad
narrates a tradition as follows, that has also been mentioned in the
Tabaqat of Ibn Sa'd that:

In the Battle of Siffin, when the head of Ammar Yasir (RA) was
cut off and was taken to Muawiyah, two people were arguing over
it, each one claiming that he had killed Ammar.

Sunni references:
- Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Traditions #6538, #6929 Printed in Dar al-
Maarif, Egypt 1952
- al-Tabaqat, by Ibn Sa'd, v3, p253

Case 2:

The second head that was amputated from the body was for Umro Ibn al-
Hamaq, who was among the companions of the prophet (Allah's blessings
on him and his cleansed progeny). Muawiyah alleged that he has
participated in the assassination of Uthman. When efforts were carried
out for his arrest, he hid in a cave, where a snake bit him. The
people who were in his pursuit cut off the head from the dead body and
took it to Ziyad. He then sent it to Muawiyah in Damascus, where the
head was roamed around the city and was finally presented to his wife
in her lap.

Sunni references:
- al-Tabaqat, by Ibn Sa'd, v6, p25
- al-Isti'ab, v2, p440
- al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah, v8, p48
- Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, v8, p24

Case 3:

The same atrocity was committed against Muhammad Ibn Abi Bakr (RA) who
was the Governor for Imam Ali (AS) in Egypt. When Muawiyah captured
Egypt, he was arrested and was killed. His dead body was placed in a
belly of a dead donkey and then was brutally burnt.

Sunni references:
- al-Isti'ab, by Ibn Abd al-Barr, v1, p235
- History of al-Tabari, v4, p79
- History of Ibn Kathir, v3, p180
- History of Ibn Khaldoon, v2, p182

Case 4:

After this, it became a tradition for people who sought vengeance
after their enemies were killed. Imam Husain's (AS) head was
amputated, and was taken from Karbala to Kufah and from Kufah to
Damascus. The body of Imam Husain (AS) was brutally ruined by the
running of horses.

Sunni references
- History of al-Tabari, v4, pp 349-351,356
- History of Ibn Kathir, v3, pp 296-298
- al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah, v8, pp 189-192

============ ========= ==
On Some of his Accounts
============ ========= ==
Jalaluddin al-Suyuti worte:

Ibn Asakir records on the authority of Hamid-b Hilal, that Akil the
son of Abu Talib begged of Ali and said , ' I am poor and needy,
therefore give unto me. ' He replied, ' wait untill my stipend cometh
with that of the other Muslims, and I will give unto thee with them,'
but he was importunate and Ali said to a man, ' take him by the hand
and go with him to the shops of the people of the market and say, '
break these locks and take what is in these shops, ' Akil said, ' dost
thou wish to make me a thief ?, ' Ali retorted, ' and dost thou wish
to make me a thief that I should take the property of the Muslims and
give it to thee, and not to them ?. ' He answered, ' I shall assuredly
go to Muawiya. ' He replied,' that as thou wilest, ' and he went to
Muawiya and begged of him, and he gave him a hundred thousand dirhams
and said, ' get up on the pulpit and mention what Ali hath given to
thee and what I have fiven thee.' Then he mounted, and praised God
and glorified him, and said,

O people I tell ye, verily I tempted Ali in regard to his
religion and he preferred his religion, and verily I tempted
Muawiyah in regard to his religion and he preferred me to his
^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^!!!!!! !!! ^^^^^^^^^

Sunni refernce: History of the Caliphs, by Jalaluddin al-Suyuti, English
version, p208

al-Suyuti also recorded:

al-Sha'abi said that the first who preached seated to the people was
Muawiyah and that was when his flesh had increased and his stomach had
grown large. (Recorded by Ibn Abi Shaybah). Az Zuhri states that
Muawiya was the first who introduced the discourse before prayers on
the Eid. (Abdur Razzaq in his Musannaf). And Said-b-ul Musayyab says
that he was the first who introduced the call to prayers on the Eid,
(Ibn Abi Shaybah), and he who diminished the number of Takbirs.

Sunni refernce: History of the Caliphs, by Jalaluddin al-Suyuti, English
version, p204

============ ========= =
Raising Quran on Spear
============ ========= =
In addition to the atrocities commited by Muawiyah, perhaps his act of
raising the Quran on the spear against Imam Ali (AS) in the Battle of
Siffin undoubtedly reflects on his character as a ruler, a person that
would resort to any means to make his plan a success. He played with the
book of Allah in order to deceive the naive people. As a result of this
trick, al-Khawarij (those who believed Imam Ali is politheist and
unbeliever) emerged in the history of Islam.

Ibn Sa'd reports a tradition from al-Zuhri that:

At the eve of the Battle of Siffin when fight was at it's peak and
people had started to loose hope, Amr Ibn al-Aas said to Muawiyah:
Accept my proposal and order the people (i.e., army of Muawiyah) to
open the Quran (i.e., raise the Quran on spears) and say, O people of
Iraq, we call you towards the Quran, and we decide by virtue of what
is contained in it from al-Hamd to al-Naas.

This act will create dissension in the ranks and file of the Iraqis
and will create hopes for the people of Shaam. Thereby Muawiyah
accpeted his proposal. (to do as he said).

Sunni references:
- Tabaqat of Ibn Sa'd, v4, p255 as per
- Khilafat Mulikiyat, Abul Ala Maududi, p345

The same fact has been mentioned in great detail by al-Tabari, Ibn Kathir,
Ibn al-Athir, and Ibn Khaldoon. The purpose behind the propsal was to
create dissension in the ranks and file of Imam Ali's (as) army, and even
if they accept the proposal (of calling towards the Quran), Muawiya's army
would manage to buy time to delay the battle.

Sunni references:
- History of al-Tabari, v4, p34
- al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah, by Ibn Katir, v7, p272
- Histoty of Ibn al-Athir, v3, p160
- History of Ibn Khaldoon, v2, p174
- Khilafat Mulukiyat, Maududi, p345

============ ========= ========= ========= =========
Muawiyah and the Origin of the word "al-Jama'ah"
============ ========= ========= ========= =========
al-Tabari recorded that:

Sajah remained with Banu Taghlib untill Muawiya transferred them in
his days on the "year of the union (al-Jama'ah) ". When the people of
^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^
Iraq agreed [to recognize] Muawiyah [as caliph] after Ali, Muawiyah
^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^
took to expelling from al-Kufa those who had been vehement in the
cause of Ali, and to settle in their homes those people of Syrai and
al-Basrah and the Jazirah who were most vehement in his own cause; it
was they who were called the "transfers" in the garrison towns.

[ The translator of the work writes in reference to the year of the
union as follows: ]

Aam al-Jama'ah the year 40 A.H/A.D 660-661, so called because the
^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^
Muslim Community came together in recognizing Muawiyah, ending the
^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^
political division of the first civil war. Pace Caetani, 648; see Abu
Zahrah al-Dimashqi, Tarikh, 188 (no. 101) and 190 (no. 105)

Sunni reference: History of al-Tabari, English version, v10, p97

Jalaluddin al-Suyuti mentions this very fact, with the utmost clarity in
his work, History of the Caliphs (Tarikhul Khulafa) with the following

al-Dhahabi says that Ka'ab died before Muawiyah was made caliph, and
that Ka'ab was right in what he said, for Muawiyah continued for
twenty years, and none of the princess of the earth contended with
him, unlike others who came after him, for they had opponents and
portions of their dominions passed out of their sway. Muawiyah went
forth against Ali as has preceded, and assumed the title of Caliph.
Then he marched against al-Hasan, who abdicted in his favor. He
therefore became firmly eshtablished in his Caliphate from Rabi'iul
Akhir or Jumadal Awwal 41 AH. The year was therefore called the Year
^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^
of the Union (al-Jama'ah) , on account of the gathering of the people
^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^
under one Caliph. During this year Muawiyah appointed Marwan Ibn al-
^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^
Hakam over Medina.

Sunni refernce: History of the Caliphs, by Jalaluddin al-Suyuti, English
version, p204 (Chapter of Muawiyah Ibn Abi Sufyan)

============ ========= ===
The Scribe of Revelation
============ ========= ===
A a pro-Umayad mentioned that:

Muawiyah was a scribe of the revelation. Is your character judgement
better then that of the Prophet?

In the previous parts, I have given the opinion of the Prophet (PBUH&HF)
about those who will fight Ahlul-Bayt based of the most authentic Sunni
collections of the traditions. According to the opinion of the Prophet,
such people were hypocrites and infidels.

Muawiyah and his father Abu Sufyan were among those who fought the Prophet
till last minutes and when they found that Mecca will be captured shortly
and their turn is over, they decided to go under the guise of Islam to save
their life and to destroy Islam from inside. This is what Abu Sufyan, his
son Muawiyah and his grandson Yazid were trying to achieve every day and
night. Now they suddenly became the Scribe of Revelation! Here is the
reason behind it:

>From the time the Caliphate fell into the hands of the Umayad, they strove
to distort the truth and turn everything head over heels. They, thus,
elevated to the zenith of power people who were, during the life of the
Prophet (PBUH&HF), ordinary, with no special standing, while they ignored
others who were at the peak of honor and nobility during the lifetime of
the Prophet (PBUH&HF).

Their sole criterion in for honor and dishonor, was their intense enmity
and excessive hatred for Muhammad (PBUH&HF) and the members of his
household, Ali, Fatimah, al-Hasan and al-Husain, peace be upon them. The
Umayad elevated the status, and fabricated false traditions, on the merits
of every person who opposed the Prophet (PBUH&HF) and his Ahlul-Bayt whom
Allah has purified and from whom He removed all abomination in Quran. They
sought nearness to those who opposed the Prophet, accorded them high
positions and grants so that they enjoyed favors and respect among the
populace. They sought to denigrate, fabricate defects, falsify reports that
denied the superiority and merits of anyone who used to love the Prophet
(PBUH&HF) and would defend him.

Thus Umar Ibn al-Khattab, who used to dispute every command of the Prophet
of Allah (PBUH&HF), even accusing the latter of hallucination in his last
days, became the hero of Islam amongst the Muslims during the time of the
Umayad dynasty.

On the other hand, Ali Ibn Abi Talib who was, to him, what Aaron was to
Moses, and who loved him, and who was loved by Allah and His Prophet, he
who was the guardian of every believer, was cursed from the pulpits for
eighty years. The effect of false propaganda reached to the point that when
the news of assassination of Imam Ali (AS) during the Fajr prayer in Mosque
reached to the people of Syria, they were surprised and asked if Ali used
to pray!

Similarly Aisha, who caused the Prophet of Allah (PBUH&HF) much torment and
disobeyed his instructions and the instructions of her Lord, rose against
the successor of the Messenger of Allah and caused the worst strife known
to the Muslims, a strife which resulted in the death of thousands of
Muslims, became the most famous lady in Islam, with religious rulings being
accepted from her. But Fatimah al-Zahra, the leader of the women of this
world and the world after, she for whom the Lord gets angry if she becomes
angry, and she for whom the Lord is happy when she is happy, became a
forgotten woman, and was buried in the secrecy of the night, after they had
threatened to burn her, and after they forced the door of her house against
her stomach, causing her to lose her child. You can hardly find one amongst
Sunnis who knows a single Hadith which she reported from her father. This
is while their books are replete with the traditions of Aisha simply
because she was the only woman who fought Imam Ali (AS).

Similarly, Yazid Ibn Muawiyah, Ziyad, the son of his father, Ibn Marjanah,
Marwan, al-Hajjaj, Ibn al-Aas, and others from the accursed tree mentioned
in Quran, and who were cursed by the tongue of the Prophet (PBUH&HF), they
became the commanders of the believers and the guardians of their affairs.
As for al-Hasan and al-Husain, the masters of the youths of paradise, the
delights of the Prophet of this nation, the Imams from the progeny of the
Prophet (PBUH&HF), the custodians of this Ummah, they were banished,
imprisoned, murdered, and poisoned. In this way, Abu Sufyan the hypocrite,
the leader in every battle that was waged against the Prophet, came to be
praised and thanked. As for Abu Talib, the protector and defender of the
Prophet (PBUH&HF) with all that he had, who passed his life in hostility
with his people and relatives for the sake of his nephew's call, so much so
that he spent three years in the enclave with the Prophet in the valley of
Mecca, keeping his belief secret, for the benefit of Islam, that some
bridges remained still open with the Quraish and so that they would not
persecute the Muslims as they wished (he was like the believer from the
family of Pharaoh who hid his belief; see Quran 40:28), Abu Talib's alleged
reward turns out to be a pair of slippers in the hellfire, his feet placed
into it and his brain is popping out from the pain!!!

In this way, Mu'awiyah Ibn Abi Sufyan, who was the freed man, son of the
freed man, the accursed one, and the son of an accursed one, he who used to
play with the injunctions of Allah and His Prophet, not attaching any
importance to it, he who used to murder the upright and innocent ones so as
to pursue his vile goals and would revile the Prophet of Allah (PBUH&HF)
while the Muslims would see and hear, became known as the scribe of
revelation!! ! They say that Allah entrusted His revelation to Gabriel,
Muhammad and Muawiyah. He also came to be described as a man of wisdom,
political acumen and reflection.

As for Abu Dharr al-Ghifari, the earth did not carry nor the sky did put
its shadow on anyone more truthful in speech than him; he was treated as
a mischief monger. He was beaten, exiled and banished to Rabdha. Salman,
Miqdad, Ammar and Hudaifah and all the sincere companions who took Imam Ali
as their leader and followed him, they met with punishment, banishment and

Similarly, those who followed the school of the Caliphs, the followers of
Muawiyah and the companions of the schools founded by the tyrannical
rulers, they turned out to be Ahl al-Sunnah wal-Jama'a and they represented
Islam. Whoever opposed them was judged to be a disbeliever.

As for those who followed the school of the Ahlul-Bayt and followed the
gate to the city of knowledge and the first one to accept Islam, he whom
the truth revolved around wherever he was, those who followed the Ahlul-
Bayt and the infallible Imams came to be considered as the people of
innovation and misguidance, and whoever opposed and fought against them
came to be seen as a Muslim.

Surely there is no power and no strength except with Allah, the Highest,
and the most Powerful. Allah surely spoke the truth when He said:

"If it is said to them; 'Make not any mischief on earth', they say:
'We are the righteous ones'. Certainly they are indeed the corrupt
ones but they do not realize it. And if it is said to them: 'Believe
as other people have believed' they say: 'Shall we believe as the
stupid ones believe'? They are the stupid ones, though they know it
not.'" (Quran 2:13)

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============ ==
A Side Comment
============ ==
A brother mentioned that one may kill another with good intention and with
love towrd each other and both (the killer and the killed one) would go to
Paradise. We have the example of Prophet Abraham (Ibrahim) who recieved
commandment to kill his son, Ismail, though it was just a test and Allah
wanted to test both of them, and finally they slaughtered a ship by Allah's

The above incedent is true. However, there is a falacy hiden in the above
argument. Abraham (AS) was a prophet and the order (to sacrifice his
son) was given by God through revelation. Also he did not FIGHT with
Isma'il, nor Ismail FOUGHT back. It was the order of Allah, and both father
and son were SUBMESSIVE to that. There was NO dispute between them.

But let me ask you this question: Did Talha and Zubair received revelation
from God to kill people? Did Quran tell them to fight against their
legitimate Caliph? If so, why not against the first three Caliphs?

Did Muawiyah and Marwan received revelation of ordering people to curse
Imam Ali (AS) and make it a popular habit of people? ... And finally, they
slaughtered the whole household of Prophet (PBUH&HF) including his beloved
son (grandson) in the same way. Do You believe when somebody is ready to
kill the whole house-hold of prophet, he refrains or is afraid of cursing
them? LA WALLAH ...

- Is cursing Imam Ali a sign of love and good intention?
- Is shedding the blood of thousands of innocent Muslims a sign of
affection and obedience to Allah?
- Is erdicating the houshold of the Prophet a sign of love toward them?

ke Lima

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| o_,_7 _|| . _o_7 _|| 4_|_|| o_w_, |
|( : / (_) / ( . |
|___________ _________ _________ _______|

Muawiyah and Abusing Imam Ali (AS)

============ ========= ========= =======
What the Prophet said about those who
fight, hate, or abuse his Ahlul-Bayt
============ ========= ========= =======
The Messenger of Allah said:

"Loving Ali is the sign of belief, and hating Ali is the sign of

Sunni references:
- Sahih Muslim, v1, p48;
- Sahih Tirmidhi, v5, p643;
- Sunan Ibn Majah, v1, p142;
- Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal v1, pp 84,95,128
- Tarikh al-Kabir, by al-Bukhari (the author of Sahih), v1, part 1, p202
- Hilyatul Awliya', by Abu Nu'aym, v4, p185
- Tarikh, by al-Khateeb al-Baghdadi, v14, p462

This tradition of Prophet was popular to the extent that some of the
companions used to say:

"We recognized the hypocrites by their hatred of Ali."

Sunni references:
- Fada'il al-Sahaba, by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v2, p639, Tradition #1086
- al-Istiab, by Ibn Abd al-Barr, v3, p47
- al-Riyad al-Nadirah, by al-Muhib al-Tabari, v3, p242
- Dhakha'ir al-Uqba, by al-Muhib al-Tabari, p91

Also Muslim in his Sahih narrated on the authority of Zirr that:

Ali (RA) said: By him who split up the seed and created something
living, the Apostle (may peace and blessing be upon him) gave me a
promise that no one but a believer would love me, and none but a
hypocrite would nurse grudge against me.

- Sahih Muslim, English version, Chapter XXXIV, p46, Tradition #141

Abu Huraira narrated:

The Prophet (PBUH&HF) looked toward Ali, al-Hasan, al-Husain, and
Fatimah, and said: "I am in the state of war with those who will fight
^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^
you, and in the state of peace with those who are peaceful to you."

Sunni references:
(1) Sahih al-Tirmidhi, v5, p699
(2) Sunan Ibn Majah, v1, p52
(3) Fada'il al-Sahaba, by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v2, p767, Tradition #1350
(4) al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v3, p149
(5) Majma' al-Zawa'id, by al-Haythami, v9, p169
(6) al-Kabir, by Tabarani, v3, p30, also in al-Awsat
(7) Jamius Saghir, by al-Ibani, v2, p17
(8) Tarikh, by al-Khateeb al-Baghdadi, v7, p137
(9) Sawai'q al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Ch. 11, section 1, p221
(10) Talkhis, by al-Dhahabi, v3, p149
(11) Dhakha'ir al-Uqba, by al-Muhib al-Tabari, p25
(12) Mishkat al-Masabih, by Khatib al-Tabrizi, English Version, Tdadition #6145
(13) Others such as Ibn Habban, etc.

It is the well-known fact in the history that Muawiyah fought Imam Ali
(AS). And based on the above tradition of the Prophet(PBUH&HF) the
Prophet has declared war on Muawiyah. How can we still love a person whom
the Prophet has declared war on him?

The Messenger of Allah said:

"Whoever hurts Ali, has hurt me"

Sunni references:
- Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v3, p483
- Fada'il al-Sahaba, by Ahmad Hanbal, v2, p580, Tradition #981
- Majma' al-Zawa'id, by al-Haythami, v9, p129
- al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Ch. 11, section 1, p263
- Ibn Habban, Ibn Abd al-Barr, etc.

The Messenger of Allah said:

"Whoever reviles/curses Ali, has reviled/cursed me"

Sunni reference:
- al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v3, p121, who mentioned this tradition is
- Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v6, p323
- Fada'il al-Sahaba, by Ahmad Hanbal, v2, p594, Tradition #1011
- Majma' al-Zawa'id, by al-Haythami, v9, p130
- Mishkat al-Masabih, English version, Tradition #6092
- Tarikh al-Khulafa, by Jalaluddin al-Suyuti, p173
- and many others such as Tabarani, Abu Ya'la, etc.

============ ========= ========= ========= ========
Muawiyah Instituting the curse of Imam Ali (AS)
============ ========= ========= ========= ========
Muawiyah not only fought Imam Ali, he cursed Imam Ali as well. Furthermore,
he did force/make everybody to curse Ali (AS). To prove it, we begin with
Sahih Muslim:

Narrated Sa'd Ibn Abi Waqqas:

Muawiyah, the son of Abu Sufyan, give order to Sa'd, and told him:
"What prevents you that you are refraining from cursing Abu Turab
(nickname of Ali)?" Sa'd replied: "Don't you remember that the Prophet
said three things about (the virtue of) Ali? So I will never curse

Sunni reference: Sahih Muslim, Chapter of Virtues of Companions, Section of
Virtues of Ali, Arabic, v4, p1871, Tradition #32.

For the English version of Sahih Muslim, see Chapter CMXCVI, p1284,
Tradition #5916

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(_)_e_,_o |_o ||_o_9 |]_e_w . |_,_9_w _,| . _, 4_, q |_e_o _o |
(_| (_) : (_S. (_). : / /

| ^ | | ^ .. / . | | | || : . | : || | | : |
|_, |_|_, .__, _) > |_o |_o | ||_o_9 .__,| _,_|| |_,| .__,_w_, . |
/ (_| . / . . (_)

| | . | || | | || :
4_,_w | . _|_9 4_|_|| | q_w 4_| . _8_||_o
. (_) (_| / / (_)

The above tradition, by the way, indicates that Muawiyah was surprised why
Sa'd does not follow his order of cursing Ali, like others do. This shows
that cursing Ali was a habit (Sunnah) for people at that time. Who made
this Sunnah? Was it Ali, or those who fought him? Now, who fought against
Ali? Wasn't he Muawiyah (the beloved companion of Wahhabis)? So this
implies that Muawiyah did innovate that habit (cursing Ali as Sunnah).

Below is more references in Sahih Muslim about Sunnah cursing Imam Ali
(AS), to prove that people were urged/forced to curse Ali in public,
otherwise they would face a costly sentence. It is narrated on the
authority of Abu Hazim that:

The Governor of Medina who was one of the members of the house of
Marwan called Sahl Ibn Sa'd, and ordered him to curse Ali. But Sahl
refused to do so. The governor said: "If you don't want to curse Ali,
just say God curse Abu Turab (the nickname of Ali)." Sahl said: "Ali
did not like any name for himself better than Abu Turab, and Ali used
to become very happy when somebody would call him Abu Turab."

Sunni reference: Sahih Muslim, Chapter of Virtues of Companions, Section of
Virtues of Ali, Arabic version, v4, p1874, Tradition #38.

Here is the Arabic text of the above tradition given by Sahih Muslim:

| | T | : . || | | : |
. | q _o | | . _o |_7 4_,_, ]_o_|| _|_c |_o_e_,_w |
(_) / / (_| (_) (_|. / : (_S (_|

| | : ^ | | . | | .
|_,_|_c o_,_w_, . | o _o |_9 ]_e_w . _, |_8_w |_c ]_9
: ( : (_) / (_). (_|

| || | | : . .. | . | | | | || : . | | .
4_|_|| . _e_| |_o_9 .__,_,_,| > | |_o | 4_| ||_o_9 |_8_w _,|_9
(_) (_| : . (_| (_| (_S.

|| | | | | /| | || : . | : ||| |
4_,_|| .__,_7| o_w | _|_e_, . |_)|_o |_8_w ||_o_9 .__,| _,_|||_,|
: . ( (_S . (_) (_| (_| . / .

| | . | . | | / | | : || |
|_8_, _c > | > | _7 _9_,_| . |_) . | q .__,| _,_|| _,| . _o
. (_S (_ / : (_) (_) / . / (_S. (_)

Cursing Imam Ali (AS) was an order from the beginning of Muawiyah's reign
for 65 years. He was Umar Ibn Abdil Aziz (may Allah be easy with him) who
canceled this order after more than half a century. Some historians even
believe that the Umayyah descendants themselves killed (poisoned) Umar Ibn
Abdil Aziz, because he changed their Sunnah, one of which was cursing Ali.
(See the Sunni book entitled "History of the Saracens," by Amir Ali,
Chapter X, pp 126-127).

One of the ugliest innovations that started during the reign of Muawiyah
was that Muawiyah himself, and through his order to his Governors, they
used to insult Imam Ali (AS) during the Sermons in the Mosques. This was
even done on the pulpit of the mosque of the Prophet in Medina in front of
the grave of the Prophet Muhammad (May Allah bless him and his Progeny),
so that even the dearest Companions of the Prophet (PBUH&HF), and Imam Ali
(AS), his family and his near relatives used to hear these swears with
their ears.

Sunni references :
- History of al-Tabari, v4, p188
- History of Ibn Kathir, v3, p234; v4, p154
- al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah, v8, p259; v9, p80

On insulting Ali Ibn Abi Talib and cursing him during the Umayah period
starting in Muawiyah's reign, it is reported that:

"Ali Ibn Abi Talib (ra) was cursed on the pulpits (manabir) of the
east and west...", during the time of Muawiyah.

Sunni reference: Mu'jam al-Buldan, al-Hamawi, v5, p38

In her letter, Umm Salama, the wife of the Prophet (PBUH&HF) wrote to
Muawiyah: "...You are cursing Allah and His messenger on your minbar,
and that is because you are cursing Ali Ibn Abi Talib and whomever
loves him, and I am a witness that Allah and His messengerloved him."
But no one paid any attention to what she said.

Sunni reference: al-Aqd al-Fareed, v2, p300

"That it was in the days of Bani Umayyah, more than seventy thousand
minbar (in mosques) upon which they cursed Ali Ibn Abi-Talib, in some
of what Muawiyah made a Sunnah for them."

Sunni references:
- Rabeea' al-Abrar, al-Zamakhshari
- al-Hafidh Jalaluddin al-Suyuti

al-Shaikh Ahmad al-Hafdhi al-Shafi'i, composed 9 verses of poetry expanding
on what al-Suyuti has reported in the previous quote, I translated the
first three verses:

And Shaikh al-Suyuti told:
That it was what they made into a "Sunnah".
Seventy thousand mibar plus ten
from the top of which they cursed Haydara (Ali).
And next to this the greatest (sins) look small,
but blame ought to be directed.

Let us now see the opinion of the son of Yazid about his father and
his grandfather, who was the witness from within the royal family!

...When (Yazid) offered the kingdom (throne) to his son, Muawiyah the
second, in order that the flag of caliphate continues to wave in the
house of Abi Sufyan!!

After his death, Muawiyah the second, gathered the people on a well
known day, he stood in them preaching, he said:

"My grandfather Muawiyah stripped the command from those who deserved
it, and from one who is more justified of it, for his relation to the
Messenger of Allah and his being first in Islam, and that is Ali Ibn
Abi Talib, he (Muawiyah) took over it by your help as you are fully

"Then following it my father Yazid wore the command after him, and he
did not deserve it. He quarreled with the son of the daughter of the
Messenger of Allah, and by that he shortened his own life... He rode
his whim and hope left him behind." Then he cried and continued:

"Surely, the greatest problems of us is our knowledge of his bad
behavior and his awful ending, and that he killed the progeny (Itrah)
of the Messenger of Allah, and he permitted drinking alcohol, and he
fought in the sanctuary of Mecca, and destroyed the Ka'ba."

"And I am not the one who is dressing up for your command, nor the one
to be responsible for your followers... You choose for yourselves.. !!"

Sunni references:
- Khulafaa al-Rasool, by Khalid Mohammed Khalid, p531 (The above quote
includes author's punctuation. )
- Sawaiq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, end of Ch. 11, pp 336

Muawiyah and Yazid murdering Imam al-Hasan Ibn Ali (AS) by poison,
reported by many, here are a few Sunni references:

1. Tathkarat al-Khawass, Sibt ibn al-Jawzi al-Hanafi, pp 191-194.
2. Ibn Abd al-Barr, in his "Seera"
3. al-Suddi
4. al-Sha'bi
5. Abu Nu'aym

No reference is required that Yazid and his gang murdered the other son of
Ali Ibn Abi Talib, the grandson of the Messenger of Allah (PBUH): Imam al-
Husain (AS) along with 70+ of his family members and loyals.

More Sunni references on the mischief of Muawiyah:

It is reported from Abdullah, son of Ahmad Ibn Hanbal saying:

I asked my father about Ali and Muawiyah. He (Ahmad Ibn Hanbal)
answered: "Know that Ali had a lot of enemies who tried hard to find a
fault in him, but they found it not. As such, they joined a man (i.e.,
Muawiyah, as given in the footnotes) who verily fought him battled
him, and they praised him (Muawiyah) extravagantly setting a snare for
themselves for him.

Sunni references:
- al-Toyuriyyat, by al-Salafi, from Abdullah Ibn Ahmad Hanbal
- al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar, Ch. 9, section 4, p197
- History of the Caliphs, by Jalaluddin al-Suyuti, English version, p202

al-Tabari reported:

When Muawiyah Ibn Abi Sufyan put al-Mughairah Ibn Shubah in charge of
Kufah in Jumada 41 (September 2- October 30, 661), he summoned him.
After praising and glorifying God, he said:

"Now then, indeed a forbearing person has been admonished in the
past... The wise might do what you want without instruction. Although
I have wanted to advise you about many things, I left them alone,
trusting in your discernment of what pleases me, what helps my regime
and what sets my subjects [raiyyah] on the right path. I would
continue to advise you about a quality of yours- do not refrain from
^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^
abusing Ali and criticizing him, not from asking God's mercy upon
^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^
Uthman and His forgiveness for him. Continue to shame the companions
^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^
of Ali, keep at a distance, and don't listen to them. Praise the
^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^
faction of Uthman, bring them near, and listen to them."

Sunni reference: History of Tabari, English version, events of year 51 AH,
Execution of Hujr Ibn Adi, v18, pp 122-123


The Messenger of Muawiyah then came to them with orders to release six
and to kill eight, telling them:
We have been ordered to let you disavow Ali and curse him. If you do
^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^
so, we shall release you, and if you refuse, we shall kill you.
^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^
Sunni reference: History of Tabari, English version, events of year 51 AH,
v18, p149

More from Sahih Muslim:

Allah's messenger (PBUH) said to Ammar: "A group of rebels would kill

- Sahih Muslim, English version, v4, chapter MCCV, Tradition #6968


Umm Salama narrated that Allah's messenger (may peace be upon him)
said: "A band of rebels would kill Ammar."

- Sahih Muslim, English version, v4, chapter MCCV, Tradition #6970

Do you know that Ammar, the great companion of the Prophet was martyred in
the battle of Siffin by Muawiyah soldiers, at the age of ninety-three? Is
it clear, now, that The gang of Muawiyah were rebels? Do you know what is
the sentence of rebels (Taghee) mentioned in Quran?

It is interesting to see that the English translator of Sahih Muslim (Abdul
Hamid Siddiqui) has written in the footnote of the above traditions that:

This narration is clearly indicative of the fact that in the conflict
between Hadrat Ali and his opponents, Hadrat Ali was on the right as
Ammar Ibn Yasir was killed in the Battle of Siffin fighting in the
camp of Hadrat Ali. (Footnote of Sahih Muslim, English version, v4,

Do I need to comment?!

The very first head that was amputated from the body during the Islamic
period was of Ammar Ibn Yasir (RA). Ahmad Ibn Hanbal in his Musnad
narrates a tradition which has also been mentioned in the
Tabaqat of Ibn Sa'd, and is as follows:

"In the Battle of Sifin, when the head of Ammar Yasir (RA) was cut
off and taken to Muawiyya, two people were arguing over it, each one
claimed that he had killed Ammar."

Sunni references:
- Musnad Ahmad (Pub. in Dar al-Maarif, Egypt 1952), Tradition #6538, #6929
- Tabaqat, by Ibn Sa'd, v3, p253

Finally, I would like to finish this article by the following two

The Messenger of Allah (PBUH&HF) said: If one while praying between
the Rukn and Maqam (near Ka'bah) and fasting, dies but with the hate
of the family of Muhammad, he will enter the Fire. And he who abuses
^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^
my Ahlul-Bayt is verily an apostate and is driven out of Islam. And he
^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^
who inflicts pain on my progeny upon him is the curse of Allah. And he
who hurts me by hurting my progeny has verily hurt/angered Allah.
Certainly Allah has made Paradise forbidden to he who does injustice
to my Ahlul-Bayt, or kills them, or assists against them, or abuses

Sunni reference: al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Ch. 11,
p357 who said this tradition is authentic.

The Messenger of Allah said: "Whoever curses (or verbally abuses) Ali,
he has, in fact, cursed me, and whoever has cursed me, he has cursed
Allah, and whoever has cursed Allah, then Allah will throw him into
the Hell-fire."

Sunni reference: Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v6, p33

Thus Muawiyah and his associates were, in fact, cursing the Prophet
(PBUH&HF), and by cursing the Prophet, they were cursing Allah (SWT), and
by cursing Allah, they shall enter the hellfire! By Allah, they will be
asked to account for what they've said! That is a promise by Allah (SWT)
which He shall not break!

"And do not think Allah to be heedless of what the unjust do; He only
respites them upto a day on which the eyes will be fixedly open."
(Quran 14:42)


ke Empat dalam Siri

this far, and I still hasnt read any of it....

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Developement of History and Hadith Collections

Let us read the following tradition very carefully and judge for ourselves
if we can ever give a possibility that such words have been uttered by the
messenger of Allah. The tradition is in Sahih Muslim, and is written in the
section of necessity of joining to the majority of people, and is as

Narrated Hudayfh Ibn al-Yaman:

Prophet said: "There will come rulers after me who do not guide to
my guidance and do not practice my Sunnah, and the hearts of some
them are the hearts of Satans but they are in the body of human."
I said: "What should we do at that time?" Prophet (PBUH) said:
"You should just listen to them and obey those rulers. No matter if
^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^
the hurt you and take your wealth, you should follow them and obey
^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^

Sunni reference: Sahih Muslim, Chapter of al-Imaarah (chapter 33 for the
Arabic version), Section of necessity of joining the majority,
1980 Edition, Arabic version (Saudi Arabia), v3, p1476, Tradition #52.

This is the Arabic text of the above tradition narrated by Sahih Muslim:

| : | | : @ | / | | :
q |]_8_, . q ]_,_8_, |_| 4_o_, | ]_e_, . q_)_, | |_o
/ (_S . (_) / : (_S . (_) / : (_|

| : || . : : . . : | |
o_8_,q_|_o ||_7 o_8_,_9 o q_o_,_w q _,_,_w_, . q_,_,_w_, |_|
( . / (_| . / ( : ( / : / (_S . (_) / :

.. | : . | | ^ . | | ^ || | :
.__,_|_o w_, | . |_o_,_7 _9 . _,_D |_,_w_|| .__,q_|_o
(_/ (_) . (_S (_): : . /

/ |. .. / | | | || | | . | . /
? (_)_|> .__,_) > | . | 4_|_|| | q_w |_, e_,,_p | .__9_,_)
/ (_) (_| / / : (_ :

/ |. . | | | | | : : | | :
(_) _8_D .__, _,_p . | q _,_o |_|_| e_,_D_, q e_o_w_, | |_o
/ . / (_) / /: (_: / (_ (_|

| | | . / || . . |
e_D | q e_o_w |_9 (_)_||_o ]_7 | q
(_ / (_ /

The above was just one example. There are more than 12 traditions similar
to this in the same section of Sahih Muslim. Who sold such traditions as
Sahih (authentic) to us? Aren't they those who wanted to make their kingdom
strong and away from any possible opposition? Any complaint is against the
above alleged word of prophet, and those people are sentenced to death. In
another tradition in the following section in Sahih Muslim, prophet has
ordered to kill those who disobey these unjust rulers. Let us see where the
origins of these books are, and who controlled the writing of them.

Muawiyah was the first one who turned his attention to write the history
and collecting the fabricated Hadiths (traditions) . He got a history of the
ancients written by a person in the name of Ubayd whom he called him from

Marwan who had been exiled by the Prophet for his anti-Islamic
activities and who had a great influence with Uthman, was the implacable
foe of Ali. His son, Abdul Malik ascended the throne in year 65 AH,
reestablished himself in year 73, and died in year 86. Abdul Malik was the
one under whose funding finally a set of Islamic History, Hadith
(tradition), and Tafsir (interpretation of the Quran) was provided.

al-Zuhri was the first historian who wrote the history of Islam under the
direct order and fund of Abdul Malik. He also wrote Hadith collection. The
works of al-Zuhri was one of the main source for al-Bukhari. al-Zuhri was
attached to the royal family of Abdul Malik, and was the tutor of his sons.
(See "al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, " by Shibli who is a great Sunni historian,
part I, pp.13-17).

Among the students of al-Zuhri, two persons, namely Musa Ibn Uqbah, and
Mohammad Ibn Ishaq became famous historians. The former was a slave of the
house of Zubair. Although his history is not available today, it had been
the most popular work on history for a long time. You will find its
references in many history books on different subjects.

The second student, Mohammad Ibn Ishaq is the most famous historian for
Sunnis. His biography of the Prophet, called "Sirah Rasul Allah", is still
the accredited authority on the subject in the shape that was given to it
by Ibn Hisham, and is known as "al-Sirah of Ibn Hisham".

al-Zuhri is the first who compiled the Hadith also. (See "al-Sirah al-
Nabawiyyah," by Shibli, part I, pp.13-17). All Sunni History and Hadith
books written afterwards by other people were in great influence of these

The above gives evidence to the following facts:

1- Sunni Hadith and History books were first compiled under the
direct order of Umayyah Kings,
2- The first authors were al-Zuhri, and his two students Musa and
Mohammad Ibn Ishaq,
3- These authors were attached to the royal family of the Umayyah

The hatred of the house of Umayyah against Bani Hashim (the house of
Prophet and Ali) is well-known. The wars of Abu Sufyan and his son Muawiyah
against Prophet and Ali respectively, also the horrible massacre of the
grandson of prophet at Karbala by the grandson of Abu Sufyan, are only some
of top items among the long list of such crimes. These are the criminals
who FIRST wrote the history and Hadith books. (The books written afterwards
by other people were in great influence of these works.) They fabricated
many traditions to justify their deeds, and to say that prophet has
ordered us to obey them even if they are unjust. What I quoted above was
just one example of such traditions.

Who was the first one that used the term "Ahlussunnah and al-Jama'ah"?

If one searches through the history books, he will find that they agreed to
call the year in which Muawiyah seized the power as "The Year of al-
Jama'ah" meaning the majority of people. It was called so, because the
nation had already become divided into two factions after the death of
Uthman: The Shia of Ali and the followers of Muawiyah. When Imam Ali (AS)
was martyred and Muawiyah took over the power, the year was called "al-
Jama'ah". Out of these two parties, the majority leading by Muawiyah won
the throne, and the other party was considered as a dangerous rival.
Therefore the name of "Ahl al-Sunnah and al-Jama'ah" indicates the Sunnah
of Prophet merged by the innovations by Muawiyah, and the agreement on his

The Imams and members of Ahlul-Bayt who are the descendants of the Prophet,
know more than anybody else about the Sunnah of their grandfather and what
it entails, for as the proverb goes: "The people of Mecca know its paths
better than anyone else". But the majority of people did/do not follow the
12 Imams whom prophet has mentioned their numbers (see Sahih al-Bukhari)
and their names (see Sunni books like "Yanabi'ul Mawaddah" by al-Qunduzi
al-Hanafi). Despite the acknowledgment of al-Bukhari and Muslim about 12
Imams, they always stop at the four Caliphs.

============ ========= ========= ====
Shia/Sunni and Scrutinizing Hadith
============ ========= ========= ====
One major difference between the Shia and the Sunnis is that Sunnis accept
any tradition from any companions no matter if these companions fought each
other, abused each other, rebelled against their righteous Caliph, and or
innovate new things in to the religion. The Shia, however, believe that all
the narrators in the chain of a document should have been JUST. If they
have done any injustice in the history (such as those mentioned above)
their narrations are void for us unless the same tradition has been
narrated with another chain of narrators who all of them are proven to be

One of the Wahhabi friends said that Shia, when narrating a Hadith, only
say the Imam so and so said, one of our friends said...Now how we can
authenticise the Hadith?

If a person has heard something directly from the 12 Imams, and that person
is trustworthy for the Shia and his narration is not against Quran, then
the tradition is authentic for us, since we believe in the
infallibility of Imams as well as Prophets. The knowledge of Imam has been
derived from the knowledge of their fathers and forefathers up to the
Prophet (PBUH&HF).

However, the chain of narrators should be evaluated. If the chain turns out
to be broken (i.e., one element in the chain is missing), then the
tradition is considered weak in Isnad. Thus all the narrators should be
named, and this is the case for the majority of Shi'i collections of

Nevertheless, there are only a number of traditions in Usul Kafi in which
the last element in the chain is missing, i.e., the name of the person who
reported to Kulaini in person. In stead of mentioning his name, Kulaini has
used the phrase "a group of our associates". But Kulaini has mentioned all
other elements in the chain.

The reason for this was that, as I mentioned, Shia have always been under
prosecution of unjust rulers including the Abbasids. If Kulaini (RA) have
mentioned the names of those who reported to him and were still alive, and
if the book could have found his way to the officials, then all those
reporters would have been killed. To protect them, he did not mention their
names and codified it by saying "a group of our associates". However he
mentioned the name of those who reported to him but died during Kulaini's

But the good news is that since Kulaini knew the regulations of
scrutinizing of the traditions by the Shia, he told some of his students
how the names of the last narrators are codieifed. More specifically, it
was mentioned that:

I. Whenever you read in Usul Kafi, that "a group of our associates
narrated from Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Isa", then the group
here means the following five persons:

1.Abu Ja'far Muhammad Ibn Yahya al-Attar al-Qummi
2.Ali Ibn Musa Ibn Ja'far al-Kamandani
3.Abu Sulayman Dawud Ibn Kawrah al-Qummi
4.Abu Ali Ahmad Ibn Idris Ibn Ahmad al-Ash'ari al-Qummi
5.Abul Hasan Ali Ibn Ibrahim Ibn Hashim al-Qummi.

II. Whenever you read in Usul Kafi, that "a group of our associates
narrated from Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Khalid al-Barqi", then
the group here means the following four persons:

1.Abul Hasan Ali Ibn Ibrahim Ibn Hashim al-Qummi
2.Muhammad Ibn Abdillah Ibn Udhaynah
3.Ahmad Ibn Abillah Ibn Umayyah
4. Ali Ibn al-Husain al-Sa'd Abadi.

III. Whenever you read in Usul Kafi, that "a group of our associates
narrated from Sahl Ibn Ziyad", then the group here means
the following four persons:

1. Abul Hasan Ali Ibn Muhammad Ibn Ibrahim Ibn Aban al-Razi, who is
known as Allan al-Kulaini
2. Abul Husain Muhammad Ibn Abdillah Ja'far Ibn Muhammad Ibn Awn al-
Asadi al-Kufi, resident of ray.
3. Muhammad Ibn al-Husain Ibn Farrukh al-Saffar al-Qummi
4. Muhammad Ibn Aqil al-Kulaini.

IV. Whenever you read in Usul Kafi, that "a group of our associates
narrated from Ja'far Ibn Muhammad who narrated from al-Hasan
Ibn Ali Ibn al-Faddal", then the group here consists of the
following person:

1. Abu Abdillah al-Husain Ibn Muhammad Ibn Imran Ibn Abi Bakr al-
Ash'ari al-Qummi.

Thus the narrators of those traditions are known and can be evaluated
accordingly. Nontheless, we do not claim that al-Kafi is an all authentic
book of traditions for the Shia. There are certain traditions in al-Kafi
which are reported by weak narrators who are known to the Shia scholars of
------------ --------- --------- --------- --------- --------- --------- ------
Imam Ali (AS) said: | || | | :
Be the enemy of the oppressor and : ( c ) _|_e_|| | |_o
the helper of the oppressed one. (_ (_S (_|
(Nahjul Balagha, the sayings of Imam Ali)

|. ||. | | | . |||. | | . /
|_, q_c o q_|_D_o_|_| q |_o,_p_7 o_||_D_| | q_, q_)
/ ( / / ( / /

Please compare this tradition of Imam Ali with the tradition of
Sahih Muslim given at the beginning of the article.

Thursday, September 28, 2006

Yang ke Tiga

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Quran and Ahlul-Bayt

Based on a parallel (Mutawatir) tradition upon whose authenticity all Muslims agree, the Messenger of Allah (AS) informed his followers in several occasions that he would leave them two precious/weighty things and that if Muslims adhere to both of them, they will never go astray after him. They are the Book of Allah (Quran) and the Members of the House of the Prophet (Ahlul-Bayt) , peace be upon them all.
It is narrated in Sahih Muslim as well as many other sources that:
Someday (after his last pilgrimage) the Messenger of Allah (PBUH&HF) stood to give us a speech beside a pond which is known as Khum (Ghadir Khum) which is located between Mecca and Medina. Then he praised Allah and reminded Him, and then said: "O' people! Behold! It seems the time approached when I shall be called away (by Allah) and I shall answer that call. Behold! I am leaving for you two precious things. First of them is the book of Allah in which there is light and guidance... The other one is my Ahlul-Bayt. I remind you in the name of Allah about my Ahlul-Bayt. I remind you in the name of Allah about my Ahlul-Bayt. I remind you in the name of Allah about my Ahlul-Bayt. (three times)."
Sunni Reference:
Sahih Muslim, Chapter of the virtues of the companions, section of the virtues of Ali, 1980 Edition Pub. in Saudi Arabia, Arabic version, v4, p1873, Tradition #36.
And many others such as Sahih al-Tirmidhi, Musnad Ahmad (see below).
For the English version of Sahih Muslim, see Chapter CMXCVI, v4, p1286, Tradition #5920
Here is the Arabic text of the above tradition in Sahih Muslim:
. | | | . |. . | | || | | : _c ]_, _@ |_o_, |_,_,_D_7 |_,_,_9 |_o q_, 4_|_|| | q_w o |_o (_S : . . : : /: (_| / / ( || : ^ /. | || . : . || : / | . ||_o o_, _)> q 4_|_|| ]_o_7_9 4_,_, ]_o_|| q 4_)_o . _,_, |_o_7 (_| ( / / : / (_): . / ^ ^ |. | | . | . |. || | |
| || | | (___)_w q_, _w_, |_, | |_o_, |_9 w |_,_|| |_8_, | |_|| ]_e_, |_o | q /: / . (_/ : . / / . / |: |. | | . | : | | o_)_,_9 (__) |_, |_, | q .__,_,_7|_9 _, | q_w _, |_, . | ( : / / . : . (_S. / (_| / / (_S : (_) . || || . | || |: / | | | | : ^ || ... q_,_||q ]_8_|| 4_,_9 4_|_|| .__,|_,_) |_o_8_|q | . _,_|_o_,_|| / / / (_S : . / (_): : | | . | || / / . | : | | | | : ^ _,_,_, |_8 | _9 4_|_|| o_) _) > | _,_,_, |_8 | q | |_o o_, (_S : . (_| (_S ( / (_S : . (_| / (_| ( . | || / / . | : | | . | || / / . | _9 4_|_|| o_) _) > | _,_,_, |_8 | _9 4_|_|| o_) _) >
| (_S ( / (_S : . (_| (_S ( / : | | _,_,_, |_8 | (_S : . (_|
As we can see in the above tradition in Sahih Muslim, not only Ahlul-Bayt has been put beside the Quran, but also it has been mentioned three times by the Prophet (PBUH&HF).
Despite the fact that the author of Sahih Muslim and many other Sunni traditionists have recorded the above tradition in their authentic books, it is regrettable that the majority of Sunnis are unaware of its existence at the best, or deny it at the worst. Their counter argument is that the most reliable tradition in this regard is the one recorded by al-Hakim in his al-Mustadrak, on the authority of Abu Huraira, attributing to the Messenger of Allah saying: "I leave amongst you two things that if you follow or act upon, you will not go astray after me: The Book of God and my Sunnah (traditions) ."
There is no doubt that ALL Muslims are required to follow the Sunnah of the Prophet (PBUH&HF). However, the question remains that which Sunnah is genuine and which one is invented later and was falsely attributed to the Prophet.
On tracing the source of this report of Abu Huraira which states "Quran and Sunnah," we found out that it has NOT been recorded in any of the six authentic Sunni collections of the traditions (Sihah Sittah). Not only that, but also al-Bukhari, al-Nisa'i, and al-Dhahabi and many others rated this report (Quran and Sunnah) as weak because of its weak Isnad. It should be noted that although the book of al-Hakim is an important Sunni collection of traditions, yet it is ranked inferior to the six major Sunni books. This is while Sahih Muslim is in the second rank among the six Sunni collections of traditions.
al-Tirmidhi reported that the "Quran and Ahlul-Bayt" version of the tradition is traced to 30+ companions. Ibn Hajar al-Haythami reported that he knows of 20+ companions witnessed that also. This is while the "Quran and Sunnah" version reported by al-Hakim has only one source! Thus we must conclude that the "Quran and Ahlul-Bayt" version is much more reliable. Moreover al-Hakim has also mentioned the "Quran and Ahlul-Bayt" version in his book (al-Mustadrak) through several chain of authorities and confirmed that the "Quran and Ahlul-Bayt" version of the tradition is authentic based on the criteria of al-Bukhari and Muslim.
Moreover, the word "Sunnah" by itself does not serve the purpose of knowledge. All Muslims irrespective to their persuasions claim that they follow the Sunnah of the Prophet (PBUH&HF). The differences among Muslims come from the transmitted Prophetic traditions through different avenues. Such traditions serve as explanatory means of the Holy Quran upon whose authenticity all Muslims agree. Thus divergence in the transmitted traditions, which in turn has led to differing interpretation of Quran and the prophetic Sunnah, has created numerous versions of Sunnah. All Muslims, as a result, splintered into different schools, groups, offshoots, which is believed to add up to seventy three groups. All of them are obeying their own version of Sunnah which they claim to be the true one. Which of these groups follow the true Sunnah of the Prophet? Which one (out of 73 groups) will be the prosperous one, and will survive? Other than the tradition of Sahih Muslim mentioned above, the following authentic traditions provide a unique detailed answer for this question:
The messenger of Allah (PBUH&HF) said: "I am leaving for you two precious and weighty Symbols that if you adhere to BOTH of them you shall not go astray after me. They are, the Book of Allah, and my progeny, that is my Ahlul-Bayt. The Merciful has informed me that These two shall not separate from each other till they come to me by the Pool (of Paradise)."
Sunni references:
Sahih al-Tirmidhi, v5, pp 662-663,328, report of 30+ companions, with reference to several chains of transmitters.
al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, Chapter of "Understanding (the virtues) of Companions, v3, pp 109,110,148, 533 who wrote this tradition is authentic (Sahih) based on the criteria of the two Shaikhs (al-Bukhari and Muslim).
Sunan, by Daarami, v2, p432
Musnad, by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v3, pp 14,17,26,59, v4, pp 366,370-372, v5, pp 182,189,350, 366,419
Fadha'il al-Sahaba, by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v2, p585, Tradition #990
al-Khasa'is, by al-Nisa'i, pp 21,30
al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar Haythami, Ch. 11, section 1, p230
al-Kabir, by al-Tabarani, v3, pp 62-63,137
Kanz al-Ummal, by al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Chapter al-Iti'sam bi Habl Allah, v1, p44.
Tafsir Ibn Kathir (complete version), v4, p113, under commentary of verse 42:23 of Quran (four traditions)
al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, by Ibn Sa'd, v2, p194, Pub. by Dar Isadder, Lebanon.
al-Jami' al-Saghir, by al-Suyuti, v1, p353, and also in v2
Majma' al-Zawa'id, al-Haythami, v9, p163
al-Fateh al-Kabir, al-Binhani, v1, p451
Usdul Ghabah fi Ma'rifat al-Sahaba, Ibn al-Athir, v2, p12
Jami' al-Usul, Ibn al-Athir, v1, p187
History of Ibn Asakir, v5, p436
al-Taj al-Jami' Lil Usul, v3, p308
al-Durr al-Manthoor, al-Hafidh al-Suyuti, v2, p60
Yanabi al-Mawaddah, al-Qundoozi al-Hanafi, pp 38,183
Abaqat al-Anwar, v1, p16
... and many more ...
| : / : | | | : ^ || / . / |: . | |_o_8_, o_,_)_w_o_, . | |_o . _,_|_o_,_|| o_)_,_9 (_) |_, _, | . ( (_) (_): ( : / (_S : | |
: : | || |: / | | . : | _,_,_, |_8 | _, _,_c q 4_|_|| .__,|_,_) : ]_e_, | q_|,_p_, . _| (_S : . (_| (_S / / . (_S . / (_) w | : : . | | . | . | . . || . | | || | |_o _,_9_, . _| |_o_8_, | _, |_,_, _,_,_7_|| .__9_,_D_|_| | . | q / : (_) (_S . /: . : (_) / . || w | | : _p q_7_|| _|_c | > _, _,_7 (_/ / (_S /: (_S
Of course, any Muslim should follow the Sunnah of the Prophet (PBUH&HF), and as such, we, the Followers of Ahlul-Bayt, submit to the genuine (practice) Sunnah of the Holy Prophet of Islam (PBUH&HF) and consider it to be the only path of salvation. But the above tradition gives evidence to the fact that any so-called Sunnah (practice) which contradicts Ahlul-Bayt is NOT a genuine Sunnah and has been innovated later on by some pay-rolled individuals in support the tyrants. That's why the Prophet had emphasized so much on Ahlul-Bayt in loving them and following them since they carry his genuine Sunnah. And this is the basis of the Shia School of Thought (the School of Ahlul-Bayt). The Ahlul-Bayt of the Prophet who are raised in his house know more than anybody else about the Sunnah of the Prophet and what it entails, for as the proverb goes: "The people of Mecca know its paths better than anyone else."
For the sake of argument, if we accept that the two versions of the tradition ("Quran and Ahlul-Bayt" vs. "Quran and Sunnah") are both authentic, then one must submit to the interpretation that the word "my Sunnah" given by al-Hakim means the Sunnah which is derived through Ahlul- Bayt and not any other source, as it is evident from the Ahlul-Bayt version given by both Mustadrak al-Hakim and Sahih Muslim. Now let us take a look at the following tradition:
Narrated Umm Salama:
The Messenger of Allah said: "Ali is with Quran, and Quran is with Ali. They shall not separate from each other till they both return to me by the Pool (of Paradise)."
Sunni references:
al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v3, p124 on the authority of Umm Salama
al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar, Ch. 9, section 2, pp 191,194
al-Awsat, by al-Tabarani; also in al-Saghir
Tarikh al-Khulafaa, by Jalaluddin al-Suyuti, p173
The above tradition gives evidence to the fact that Imam Ali and Quran are non-separable. If we accept the "Quran and Sunnah" version to be authentic, then one can conclude that the one who carries the Sunnah of Prophet is Imam Ali since he is the one who has been put beside Quran.
Interesting to see, al-Hakim has many other traditions about necessity of following Ahlul-Bayt, among which is the following tradition. This tradition is also narrated by many other Sunni scholars and is known as the "Tradition of the Ship" in which the Prophet (PBUH&HF) stated:
"Behold! My Ahlul-Bayt are like the Ark of Noah. Whoever embarked in it was SAVED, and whoever turned away from it was PERISHED."
. : . . |^ / : | | |^ | . | _7q_, 4_,_,_9_w |_,_o_) _,_,_, |_8 | |_,_o |_o_, | (_ / : (_| (_S : . (_| (_| / | | . . | . : . | / ,__)_|_8 |_8_,_c __9_|_7_, . _o q _7_, |_8_,_) . _o (_) / (_S. . / (_)
Sunni references:
al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v2, p343, v3, pp 150-151 on the authority of Abu Dhar. al-Hakim said this tradition is authentic (Sahih).
Fadha'il al-Sahaba, by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v2, p786
Tafsir al-Kabir, by Fakhr al-Razi, under the commentary of verse 42:23, Part 27, p167
al-Bazzar, on the authority of Ibn Abbas and Ibn Zubair with the wording "drowned" instead of "perished".
al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar Haythami, Ch. 11, section 1, p234 under Verse 8:33. Also in section 2, p282. He said this Hadith has been transmitted via numerous authorities.
Tarikh al-Khulafaa and Jami' al-Saghir, by al-Suyuti
al-Kabir, by al-Tabarani, v3, pp 37,38
al-Saghir, by al-Tabarani, v2, p22
Hilyatul Awliyaa, by Abu Nu'aym, v4, p306
al-Kuna wal Asmaa, by al-Dulabi, v1, p76
Yanabi al-Mawaddah, by al-Qundoozi al-Hanafi, pp 30,370
Is'af al-Raghibeen, by al-Saban
The above tradition gives evidence to the fact that those who adopt the school of Ahlul-Bayt and follow them, shall be saved from the punishment of Hell, while those who run away from them shall meet with the fate of the one who tried to save his life by climbing up the mountain, with the only difference that whereas he (Noah's renegade son) was drowned in water, but these people will be drowned the fire of Hell. The following tradition also confirms it:
The Prophet (PBUH&HF) said about Ahlul-Bayt:
"Do not be ahead of them for you will perish, do not turn away from them for you will perish, and do not try to teach them since they know more than you do!"
. | . | .: : | | | / | : . :: : | | o_8_,_c |q_9_|_7_,_, |_| q |q_)_|_8_,_9 o_8 q_o ]_o_,_, |_| ( / / / ( / /. | | . | . | : | | | / | : . o_)_,_o o_|_c | o_8_, |_9 o_8 q_o_|_e_, |_| q |q_)_|_8_,_9 ( ( ( ( / / /
Sunni references:
al-Durr al-Manthoor, by al-Suyuti, v2, p60
al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Ch. 11, section 1, p230, quoted from al-Tabarani, also in section 2, p342
Usdul Ghabah, by Ibn al-Athir, v3, p137
Yanabi' al-Mawaddah, by al-Qundoozi al-Hanafi, p41, and P335
Kanz al-Ummal, by al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, v1, p168
Majma' al-Zawa'id, by al-Haythami, v9, p163
Aqabat al-Anwar, v1, p184
A'alam al-Wara, pp 132-133
Tadhkirat al-Khawas al-Ummah, Sibt Ibn al-Jawzi al-Hanafi, pp 28-33
al-Sirah al-Halabiyyah, by Noor al-Din al-Halabi, v3, p273
Here is another one:
The Messenger of Allah (PBUH&HF) said: "My Ahlul-Bayt are like the Gate of Repentance of the Children of Israel; whoever entered therein was forgiven."
|^ / . : | | |^ | . | |_,_o o_)_,_9 _,_,_, |_8 | |_,_o |_o_,
| (_| ( : (_S : . (_| (_| | . . | . | @ | | . . : | | 4_| _9_c 4_|_7 > . _o |_,_, | _w | _,_, _9 4__D_7 .__,|_, / (_) (_|: / (_S . (_S . .
Sunni References:
Majma' al-Zawa'id, by al-Haythami, v9, p168
al-Awsat, by al-Tabarani, Tradition #18
Arba'in, by al-Nabahani, p216
al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Ch. 11, section 1, pp 230,234
Another fairly similar tradition was recorded by al-Darqunti as well as Ibn Hajar in his al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, Ch. 9, section 2, p193 where the Prophet (PBUH&HF) said: "Ali is the Gate of Repentance, whoever entered therein was a believer and whoever went out was an unbeliever."
The above tradition was in connection with verses 2:58 and 7:161 of Quran which describe the Gate of Repentance of Bani Israel. Those of companions of Moses who did not enter the Gate of the Repentance were lost in the desert for forty years, while those who did not enter the ark of Noah were drowned. Ibn Hajar concludes that:
"The analogy of the Ark of Noah signifies that those who love and honor the Ahlul-Bayt and derive from their guidance will be rescued from the darkness of opposition, and those who will turn against them will be drowned in the sea of ingratitude and will perish in the desert of insubordination and rebellion."
Sunni reference: al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar, p91
Have we ever asked ourselves why the Prophet put so much emphasis on Ahlul- Bayt? Was is just because they were members of his family, or was it because they carried his true teachings (Sunnah) and they were the most knowledgeable individuals among his community after him?
Different versions of the Tradition of Two Weighty Things (al-Thaqalain) which prove conclusively that it is compulsory to follow the Quran and the Ahlul-Bayt, are not ordinary traditions. They are repeated many times and are related on the authority of more than thirty of the companions of the Holy Prophet through various sources. The Holy Prophet repeated these words over and over again (and not merely in one isolated instance but on several occasions) publicly to show that it is compulsory to follow and obey the Ahlul-Bayt. He made the announcement during the Farewell Pilgrimage, on the day of Arafat, on the day of Ghadir Khum, on the return from Ta'if, also in Medina from the pulpit, and in his deathbed when the room was packed with his disciples, he said:
"O folk! I am soon going to depart from here, and although I have already told you, I repeat once more that I am leaving with you two things, namely, the Book of Allah and my descendants, that is, my Ahlul-Bayt." Then he lifted Ali by the hand and said: "Behold! this Ali is with the Quran and the Quran is with him. These two shall never separate from each other until they come to me at the Pool of Kawthar."
Sunni reference: al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar, Ch. 9, section 2
Ibn Hajar al-Haythami wrote:
"The Traditions of Adherence has been handed down through a large number of sources and more than twenty of the disciples have related it."
He further wrote:
"Here a doubt arises, and it is that while the Tradition has come down through various sources, some say that the words were spoken during the last pilgrimage, others that they were spoken at Medina when he lay on his deathbed and the room was packed with his disciples, yet another saying that he spoke these words at Ghadir Khum, or in another Hadith, on the return from Ta'if. But there is NO inconsistency in these, since having regards to the importance and greatness of the Quran and the pure Ahlul-Bayt, and with a view of emphasizing the point before the people, the Holy Prophet might have repeated these words on all these occasions so that any one who had not heard them before might hear them now."
Sunni reference: al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Ch. 11, section 1, p230
Concluding the above traditions, the Quran and Ahlul-Bayt are the only two precious things that the Prophet left for Muslims, and stated that if Muslims follow BOTH of them, they will not go astray after him, and they will be led to Paradise, and that those who forsake Ahlul-Bayt will not survive. The above traditions have been designed by Prophet (PBUH&HF) to answer which "Sunnah" is genuine and which group caries the true "Sunnah" of the Prophet. It is aimed at not leaving Muslims at loss as to which way to go after the departure of the Prophet (PBUH&HF). On the other hand, if we use the word "Sunnah" alone, it does not give us any specific answer for this question since all the groups among the Muslim nation follow their own version of Sunnah as well as their own interpretation of the Quran and Sunnah. Thus the prophetic instructions were clear in urging Muslims to follow the interpretation of Quran and the Sunnah of the Prophet transmitted through the channel of Ahlul-Bayt whose sinlessness, purity, and righteousness is confirmed by the Holy Quran (the last sentence of verse 33:33).


____________ _________ _________ ________,
| w w w | | || || | || | | o_,_7 _|| . _o_7 _|| 4_|_|| o_w_, | | ( : / (_) / ( . | |___________ _________ _________ _________ | \\\\\\\\\\\\ \\\\\\\\\ \\\\\\\\\ \\\\\\\\\
The Quran Compiled by Imam Ali (AS)

There is no dispute among Muslim scholars, whether they are Sunni or Shia,
concerning the fact that the Commander of Believers, Ali (AS), possessed a
special transcript of the text of Quran which he had collected himself, and
he was THE FIRST who compiled Quran. There are a great number of traditions
from Sunni and Shia which states that after the death of the Holy Prophet
(PBUH&HF), Imam Ali sat down in his house and said that he had sworn an
oath that he would not put on his outdoor clothes or leave his house until
he collects together the Quran.

Sunni references:
- Fat'hul Bari fi Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, by Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, v10,
- al-fihrist, by (Ibn) an-Nadim, p30
- al-Itqan, by al-Suyuti, v1, p165
- al-Masahif, by Ibn Abi Dawud, p10
- Hilyatul awliya', by Abu Nu'aym, v1, p67
- al-Sahibi, by Ibn Faris, p79
- 'Umdatul Qari, by al-Ayni, v20, p16
- Kanzul Ummal, by al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, v15, pp 112-113
- al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Ch. 9, Section 4, p197
- Ma'rifat al-Qurra' al-kibar, by al-Dhahabi, v1, p31

There are also traditions from the Imams of Ahlul Bayt which tell us that
this was done by Imam Ali by order of the Holy Prophet (See al-Bihar, v92,
pp 40-41,48,51- 52).

This transcript of Quran which compiled by Imam Ali (AS) had the following
unique specifications:

a) It was collected according to its revelation, i.e., in the order in
which it had been sent down. This is the reason that Muhammad Ibn Sireen
(33/653 - 110/729), the famous scholar and Tabi'i (disciples of the
companions of the Holy Prophet), regretted that this transcript had not
passed into the hands of the Muslims, and said: "If that transcript were in
our hands, we would found a great knowledge in it."

Sunni References:
- at-Tabaqat, by Ibn Sa'd, v2, part 2, p101
- Ansab al-ashraf, by al-Baladhuri, v1, p587
- al-Istiab, by Ibn Abd al-Barr, v3, pp 973-974
- Sharh Ibn Abi al-Hadid, v6, pp 40-41
- al-Tas'hil, by Ibn Juzzi al-Kalbi, v1, p4
- al-Itqan, by al-Suyuti, v1, p166
- al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Ch. 9, Section 4, p197
- Ma'rifat al-Qurra' al-kibar, by al-Dhahabi, v1, p32

It is according to this transcript that Sunni scholars relate that the
first Chapter of Quran which was sent down to the Prophet (PBUH&HF) was
Chapter al-Iqra (al-Alaq, Ch. 96).

Sunni References:
- al-Burhan, by al-Zarkashi, v1, p259
- al-Itqan, by al-Suyuti, v1, p202
- Fathul Bari, by Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, v10, p417
- Irshad al-sari, by al-Qastalani, v7, p454

As you know the Chapter al-Alaq is not at the beginning of the present
Quran. Also Muslims agree that the verse (5:3) was among one of the
last revealed verses of Quran (but not the very last one), yet it is not
toward the end of the present Quran. This clearly proves that although
the Quran that we have available is complete, it is not in the order
that has been revealed. These few misplacements were done by some
companions on purpose at worst, or out of ignorance at least.

It was for this reason that the Commander of Believers, Ali (AS) frequently
stated in his sermons: "Ask me before you lose me. By Allah, if you ask me
about anything that could happen up to the Day of Judgment, I will tell you
about it. Ask me, for, by Allah, you will not be able to ask me a question
about anything without my informing you. Ask me about the Book of Allah,
for by Allah, there is no verse about which I do not know whether it was
sent down at night or during the day, or whether it was revealed on a plain
or in a mountain."

Sunni References:
- al-Riyadh al-Nadhirah, by al-Muhib al-Tabari, v2, p198
- at-Tabaqat, by Ibn Sa'd, v2, part 2, p101
- al-Isabah, by Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, v4, p568
- Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, by Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, v7, pp 337-338
- Fathul Bari, by Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, v8, p485
- al-Istiab, by Ibn Abd al-Barr, v3, p1107
- Tarikh al-Khulafa, by al-Suyuti, p124
- al-Itqan, by al-Suyuti, v2, p319

b) This transcript contained commentary and hermeneutic interpretation
(Tafsir and Ta'wil) from the Holy Prophet some of which had been sent down
as revelation but NOT as a part of the text of Quran. A small amount of
such texts can be found in some traditions in Usul al-Kafi. These pieces of
information were the Divine commentary of the text of Quran which were
revealed along with Quranic verses. Thus the commentary verses and Quranic
verses could sum up to 17000 verses. As Sunnis know, Hadith al-Qudsi (the
Hadith in which the speaker is Allah) is also direct revelation, but they
are not a part of Quran. In fact Quran testifies that anything that Prophet
said was (either direct or indirect) revelation (See Quran 53:3-4). The
direct revelation includes the interpretation/ commentary of the Quran.

In addition, this unique transcript contained the information from the Holy
Prophet about which verse was abrogated and which was abrogating, which
verse was clear (Muhkam) and which was ambiguous (Mutashabih) , which verse
was general and which was specific.

c) This unique transcript also contained references to the persons, places
etc., about which the verses were revealed, what is called "Asbab al-
Nuzul". Since the Commander of Believers was aware of these facts, he
frequently said: "By Allah, no verse has been sent down without my knowing
about whom or what it was revealed and where it was revealed. My Lord has
gifted me with a mind which has a quick and retaining understanding, and a
tongue which speaks eloquently."

Sunni References:
- Hilyatul Awliyaa, by Abu Nu'aym, v1, pp 67-68
- at-Tabaqat, by Ibn Sa'd, v2, part 2, p101
- Kanzul Ummal, by al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, v15, p113
- al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Ch. 9, Section 4, p197

After he compiled this transcript, Imam Ali (AS) took it and presented it
to the rulers who came after the Holy Prophet, and said: "Here is the book
of Allah, your Lord, in the order that was revealed to your Prophet."
but they did not accept it and replied: "We have no need of this. We have
with us what you possess." Thereupon, Imam Ali (AS) took the transcript
back and informed them that they will never see it again. It is reported
that Imam Ali recited the latter part of the following verse of Quran:

"And when Allah took a Covenant from the People of the Book to
clarify it to mankind and not to hide its (clarification) ; but
they threw it away behind their backs and purchased with it some
miserable gain! and what an evil was the bargain they made!"
(Quran 3:187)

By "its clarification" , Imam Ali meant the unique divine commentaries.
The Commander of Believers then concealed that transcript, and after him it
was passed to the Imams who also kept it concealed. It remained concealed
with the Imams, one after the other to this day, because they wished to be
only one sequence of Quran among the Muslims. Because otherwise if people
have had two different sequences, it might later result to some alteration
in Quran by some sick-minded people. They wished people have strictly one
sequence of Quran. The Quran and its commentary which were collected by
Imam Ali (AS) is not available for any Shia in the world except to the Imam
Mahdi (AS). If the transcript of the Commander of Believers had been
accepted, that would have been the Quran with unique commentary in the hand
of people, but it turned out to be otherwise.

This gives the meaning of the traditions in Usul al-Kafi which say that no
one but the Commander of Believers and the later Imams had the Quran in the
order it was revealed, and that the Quran which they had contains "what can
be understood of the heaven, etc." and "the Knowledge of the Book, all of
it," because they were the commentaries and interpretations noted in the
transcript of Imam Ali directly from the Holy Prophet (PBUH&HF). Allah, to
whom belong Might and Majesty, said:

"And We have sent down on you a Book in which is the clarification of
ALL the things." (Quran 16:89)

Sometimes the word "tahrif" is used in some traditions, and it must be made
clear that the meaning of this word is changing of something from its
proper place to another place, like changing the right position of
sentence, or giving it a meaning other than its true or intended meaning.
Therefore, it has absolutely nothing to do with addition or subtraction
from the text. It is thus with this meaning that the Quran states:

"Some of the Jews distort (yuharrifuna) words from their meaning"
(Quran 4:46).

This meaning of "tahrif", i.e., changing of meaning or changing the
context, as it appears in the Quran, has not only been applied in the
Muslim community to the verses of the Quran but also to the ahadith of the
Holy Prophet, even by rulers who have been prepared to use Islam to their
own personal advantage. It is this "tahrif", with this meaning, that the
Imams of Ahlul-Bayt have constantly sought to oppose. As one example, Imam
al-Baqir (AS) complained about the situation of the Muslims and their
corrupt rulers, and said:

"One of the manifestations of their rejecting the Book (of Allah
behind their backs) (see Quran 2:101) is that they have fixed its
words. but they have altered the limits (of its command) (harrafu
hududah). They have (correctly) narrated it, but they do not observe
(what) it (says). Ignorant people delight in their preservation of its
narration, but the knowledgeable people deplore their ignoring to
observe (what) it (says)."

Shi'i references:
- al-Kafi, v8, p53
- al-Wafi, v5, p274 and v14, p214

This use of "tahrif" is taken as a definition for the word wherever it
appears in the ahadith of the Imams, similar to what Quran (4:46) has

It is necessary to emphasize here that all grand scholars of the Imami Shia
are in agreement that the Quran which is at present among the Muslims is
the very same Quran that was sent down to the Holy Prophet, and that it has
not been altered. Nothing has been added to it, and nothing is missing from
it. The Quran which was compiled by Imam Ali (excluding the commentaries)
and the Quran that is in the hand of people today, are identical in terms
of words and sentences. No word, verse, chapter is missing. The only
difference is that the current Quran (collected by the companions) is not
in the order that was revealed.

The completeness of Quran is so indisputable among Shia that the great Shia
scholar, Abu Ja'far Muhammad Ibn Ali Ibn al-Husain Ibn Babwayh, known as
"Shaikh Saduq" (309/919-381/ 991), wrote:

"Our belief is that the Quran which Allah revealed to His Prophet
Muhammad is (the same as) the one between the two covers (daffatayn).
And it is the one which is in the hands of the people, and is not
greater in extent than that. The number of Surahs as generally
accepted is one hundred and fourteen...And he who asserts that we say
that it is greater in extent than that, is a liar."

Shi'i reference: Shi'ite Creed (al-I'tiqadat al-Imamiyyah) , by Shaikh
Saduq, English version, p77.

It should be noted that Shaikh Saduq (RA) was the greatest scholars of
Hadith among the Imami Shia and was given the name of Shaikh al-Muhaddithin
(i.e., the most eminent of the scholars of Hadith). And since he wrote the
above in a book with the name of "The beliefs of the Imami Shia," it is
quite impossible that there could be any authentic Hadith in contrary to
it. It is noteworthy that Shaikh Saduq lived at the time of minor
occultation of Imam Mahdi (AS) and he is one of the earliest Shia scholars.
He had the honor that he was born with the prayer of Imam Mahdi (AS).

For a more detailed discussion of completeness of Quran as well as the
opinion of the Shia, interested readers may look at "al-Bayan," by Abul
Qasim al-Khoei, pp 214-278.

Some ignorant opponents of the Shia mentioned that we apply al-Taqiyya
(dissimulation) and we do not release our actual belief on Quran. These
people never tried to understand that Taqiyya is for the time when my life
or the life of the other fellow is in danger. There is no need to conceal
my belief here since I am not under prosecution. The above article is
witness to what I say. Taqiyya is not a good excuse for these people in
front of Allah to disregard what Shia present. They have liberty to check
the traditions which we have mentioned in different articles, or they can
else ask their "honest" scholars to do that.

And the truth is the best to be followed...


sempena Ramadhan

Maaf, saya pun tak baca lagi, tapi nak share. bagi saya susah sikit nak paham, kena baca slow...

| |
| || || | || |
| o_,_7 _|| . _o_7 _|| 4_|_|| o_w_, |
|( : / (_) / ( . |
|___________ _________ _________ _______|

Early Debates on the Integrity of the Quran (Part I)

[ This article is written by Professor Hossein Modarresi from Princeton
University, NJ ]

This short article attempts to shed some light on the origins of
the Sunnite-Shi' ite controversies on the integrity of the text of the
Quran. The development of these debates in the first Islamic
centuries represents an interest example of how ideas evolved in
the early period through sectarian disputes, as well as contacts and
communication between various Muslim sects and schools of
thought. Despite severe mistrust, various factors existed to facili-
tate the give and take among different sects. Most prominent was
a group of hadith transmitters who frequented different sectatrian
camps and, thereby, introduced much of each sect's literature to
the others. Often confusion on the part of these "bipolar" narra-
tors of hadith helped "naturalize" segments of one sect's literature
into that of another sect.

This was particularly true in Shi'ism, many of transmitters
heard hadith from both Shitite and Sunnite sources, and later
misattributed much of what they had heard.[1] The early Shi'ite

[1] Kashshi, Marifat al naqilin = Kitba al Rijal, abridged by
Muhammad b. al Hasan al Tusi as Ikhtiyar Marifat ar Rijal
p 590-91, where Shadhan b. Khalil al Naysaburi askes the
celebrated hadith transmitter, Abu Ahmad Muhammad b. Abi Umayr
al Azdi, who heard from bothe Shi'ite and Sunnite sources, why
he never quoted any Sunnite hadith to his tudents in his works. He
answered, that he deliberately avoided that since he found many
of the Shi'ites studied both Shi'ites and Sunnites traditions, but
later confused and ascribed Sunnite material to the Shi'ites sources
and vice versa.

mutakallimun also quoted statements from the Sunnite sources in
their polemics against the Sunnites as argumentum ad homi-
nem. But from the mid 3rd/9th century onward, it was common
for some Shi'ite authors and traditionisls to attribute a Shi'ite
origin to this material, since it was thought that whatever the
companions of the Imams and early Shl'ite mutakallimun said or
wrote, even what they used in their polemics, necessarily represen-
ted the views and statements of the Imams.[2] This assumption
led to the introduction of much alien material into Shi'ite thought.

[2] Kulayni, al Kafi, vol 1 p 99
Subhu al Salih, Mabahith fi ulum al Quran, p 134

Many of these early interchanges were forgotten over time.
Hence it was not known that many of the ideas that were later
labeled as Sunnite, Shi'ite, or the like were originally held by a
different group or, at least in the early period before the sects took
on their final shape, were shared by various mainstream elements
of Islamic society. The question of the integrity of the Uthmanic
text of the Qur-an and the controversies surrounding it are a prime
example of that phenomenon. The central issue in these debates
was whether the Uthmanic text comprehended the entire body of
material that was revealed to the Prophet, or whether there had
been further material that was missing from the Uthmanic
text. In the following pages, we shall examine the Sunnite-Shi' ite
interchanges on this question.

* * * * *

The evidence in the text of the Qur'an itself as well as in hadith
indicates that the Prophet compiled a written scripture for Islam
during his own life-time, most likely in his first years in
Medina.[3] He reportedly continued until the end of his life to

[3] Zarkashi, al Burhan fi ulum al Quran, vol 1 p 235, 237-38
256, 258
Suyuti, al Itqan fi ulum al Quran, vol 1 p 212-13, 216

personally instruct the scribes where to insert new passages of the
revelation in the scripture.[4] There are also indications that

[4] Ahmad b. Hanbal, vol 1 p 57
Tirimidhi, Sunan, vol 4 p 336-37
al Hakim al Naysaburi, al Mustadrak, vol 2 p 229

parts of earlier revelations were not included in the scrip-
ture. One verse in the Quran acknowledges the absence of a part
of revelation which was abrogated or "caused to be forgoeten, [5]

[5] Quran Chapter II Verse 106

another spoke of verses that God substituted for uthers.[6] Early

[6] Quran Chapter XVI Verse 101

Muslims reportedly used to recall verses of the revelation they did
not find in the new scripture. They were however, aware that
those passages were deliberately excluded by the Prophet, since
the Muslims frequently referred to them as what "abrogated"
(nusikha), "lifted" (rufi'a), "caused to be forgotten" (unsiya), or
"dropped't (usqita).[7] The concept of abrogation of the revela-

[7] Abu Byad, al Naskih wa'l mansukh fi l Quran an al Karim,
ed. John Burton (Cambridge 1987), p 6
Muhasibi, Fahm al Quran an wa manih ed. H. Quwwatli (in the
collection of al Aql wa fahm al Quran [n.p., 1971] p 261-502)
p 399 (quoting Anas b. Malik), 400 and 408 (quoting Amr b. Dinar)
403 (quoting Abd al Rahman b. Awf), 405 (quoting Abu Musa al
Ashari), 406
Tabari, Jami al Bayan, vol 3 p 472-74, 476, 479-80
Ibn Salama, al Nasikh wa l mansukh, p 21 (quoting Abd Allah b.
Suyuti, al Durr al manthur, vol 5 p 179 (quoting Ubayy b. Kab)

tion (naskh al Quran) apparently referred originally to those parts
that were not included by the Prophet in the scripture.[8] Later,

[8] Abu Ubayd, al Naskih, p 6
Bayhaqi, Dalail al Nubuwwa, vol 7 p 154 (where it is argued that
the Prophet never put the Quran together since there was always the
expectation that some verses might be abrogated and some later
modification was thus in-evitable in any collection of the Quran
put together during his lifetime. Underlying this argument is the
assumption that the abrogated verses had to be physically removed
from the scripture.)
Zarkashi, vol 2 p 30 (the first interpretation of the concept of

however, the concept was developed in the Sunnite tradition to
include several hypothetical categories, most of them with
examples preserved in the present text of the Quran. With a
single possible exception,[9] however, it is highly doubtful that the
Qur'an includes any abrogated verse.

[9] Abu al Qasim al Khui, al Bayan, p 305-403

The Sunnite account of the collection of the Quran is comple-
tely different from the above. It contends that the Quran was
not compiled in a single volume until after the Prophet died in the
year 11/632.[10] The "recorders of the revelation" (kuttab al-

[10] Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al Tabaqat al Kabir, vol 3 p 211, 281
Ibn Abi Dawud, Kitab al Masahif, p 10
Ibn Babawayh, Kamal ad Din, p 31-32
Bayhaqi, Dalail, vol 7 p 147-8
Zarkashi, vol 1 p 262
Ibn al Hadid, Sharah of Nahj al Balagha. vol 1 p 27
Ibn Juzayy, al Tashil li ulum al tanzil, vol 1 p 4
Suyuti, Itqan, vol 1 p 202
Ibrahim al Harbi, Gharib al hadith, vol 1 p 270

wahy) used to jot down the verses immediately after the Prophet
received and recited them. Others among the faithful memorized
portions of the revelation or occasionally recorded them on whate-
ver primitive writing material was available. According to the
supporters of this account, the fact that the Quran was not compi-
led as a book until the death of the Prophet is perfectly logi-
cal. As long as he was alive there was always the expectation of
further revelation as well as occasional abrogations. Any formal
collection of the material already revealed could not properly be
considered a complete text.[11] Many people had memorized

[11] Bayhaqi, Dalail, vol 7 p 154
Zarkashi, vol 1 p 235, 262
Suyutim Itqan, vol 1 p 202
Ahmad al Naraqi, Manahij al ahkam, p 152

large parts of the revelation, which they repeated in their prayers
and recited to others. As long as the Prophet was living among
the faithful as the sole authority there was no need for a formal
reference book of religion or a code of law. All of these considera-
tions would change after his death and the new circumstances
would necessitate the collection of the Qur'an. The story as
reported by the Sunnis sources is as follows

Two years etfter the Prophet died, the Muslims were engaged in a
bloody battle with a rival community at Yarnama in the deserts of
Arabia. Many of the memorizers (qurra) of the Qur'an lost their
lives at this time.[12] Fearing that a great portion of the Qur'an

[12] Yaqubi, Kitab al Tarikh, vol 2 p 15, most of the bearers of
the Quran were killed during the battle. All together, some
360 persons among the distinguished companions of the Prophet
lost their lives on that occasion.)
Tabari, Tarikh, vol 3 p 296
Larger figures upto 500 for Ibn al Jazari, al Nashr, p 7
Ibn Kathir, Tafsir al Quran, vol 7 p 439
Qurtubi, al Jami li Ahkam al Quran, vol 1 p 50
and a figure of 1200 for Abd al Qahir al Baghdadi, Usul al Din p 283
are also given. The last figure is however the number of all Muslims
who were killed in the battle, Companions and others see Tabari vol 3
p 300

would be lost should a similar situation arise and more memorizers
of the Quran die, Abu Bakr, the first successor to the Prophet,
ordered that the Qur'an be collected. To this end, the Prophet's
companions and the memorizers of the Quran were asked to come
forward with any parts of the revelation they had memorized or
written down in any form. Abu Bakr ordered 'Umar, his succes-
sor to be, and Zayd b. Thabit, a young recorder of revelation
during the Prophet's lifetime, to sit at the entrance to the mosque
of Medina and record any verse or part of the revelation that at
least two witnesses testified that they had heard from the Prophet. In
one particular case, though, the testimony of a single witness was
accepted.[13] All of the material gathered in this manner was

[13] The case in question was the last two verses of Sura 9 in the
present Quran which was added on the authority of Khuzayma b.
Thabit al Ansari (or ABu Khuzayma according to some reports).
Bukhari, Sahih, vol 3 p 392-93
Tirimidhi, vol 4 p 346-47
Abu Bakr al Marwazi, Musnad Abi Bakr al Siddiq, p 97-99, 102-4
Ibn Abu Dawud, p 6-7, 9, 20
Ibn al Nadim, p 27
al Khatib al Baghdadi, Mudih awham al jam wa l tafrig, vol 1 p 276
Bayhaqi, Dalail, vol 7 p 149-50

recorded on sheets of paper,[14] or parchment, but was not yet

[14] Yaqubi, vol 2 p 135
Itqan, vol 1 p 185, 207, 208

compiled as a volume. Furthermore, these materials were not
made available to the Muslim community, which continued to pos-
sess the Qur'an only in its primitive scattered form. The sheets
remained in the keeping of Abu Bakr and 'Umar, and after
'Umar's death they passed to his daughter Hafsa. 'Uthman took
the sheets trom Hafsa during his caliphate and had them put toge-
ther in the form of a volume. He had several copies sent to dif-
ferent parts of the Muslim world and he then ordered that any
other collection or portion of the Qur'an found anywhere else be

[15] Bukhari, vol 3 p 393-94,
Tirmidhi, vol 4 p 347-8
Abu Bakr al Marwazi, p 99-101
Ibn Abi Dawud, p 18-21
Bayhaqi, Dalail, vol 7 p 15051
Abu Hilal Askari, Kitab al Awail, vol 1 p 218

This whole story about the collection ot the Qur'an was accepeed
by the Sunnite scholars as trustworthy and served, as we shall see
below, as the basis for the idea that later emerged of the incomple-
teness of the text of the Qur'an.

Sunnite literature contains many reports that suggest that some
of the revelation had already been lost before the collection of the
Qur'an initiated by Abu Bakr. It is reported, for example, that
'Umar was once looking for the text of a specific verse of the
Qur'an he vaguely remembered. To his deep sorrow, he discove-
red that the only person who had any record of that verse had been
killed in the battle of Yamama and that the verse was consequen-
tly lost.[16] Umar allegedly had a recollection of a Qur'anic verse

[16] Ibn Abi Dawud, p 10
Itqan, vol 1 p 204

on stoning as a punishment for adultery.[17] . But he could not

[17] Malik b. Anas, Muwatta, vol 2 p 824
Ahmad, vol 1 p 47, 55
Muhasibi, p 398, 455
Bukhari, vol 4 p 305
Muslim, Sahih, vol 2 p 1317
Ibn Maja, Sunan, vol 2 p 853
Tirmidhi, vol 2 p 442-3
Abu Dawud, Sunan, vol 4 p 145
Ibn Qutayba, Tawil mukhtalif al hadith, p 313
Ibn Salama, p 22
Bayhaqi, al Sunan al Kubra, vol 8 p 211, 213

convince his colleagues to insert it in the Quran because nobody
else came forward to support him,[18] and the requirement that

[18] Itqan, vol 1 p 206

there be two witnesses for any text to be accepted as a part of the
Qur'an was therefore not met. Later, however, some other
Companions recalled that same verse,[19] including Aisha the

[19] Ahmad, vol 5 p 183 (quoting Zayd b, Thabit and Said al-As
Abd al Razzaq, AL Musannaf, vol 7 p 330
Itqan, vol 3 p 82, 86
al Durr al Manthur, vol 5 p 180 (quoting Ubayy b. Ka'b and

Prophet's youngest wife. She is alleged to have said that a sheet
on which two verses, including that on stoning, were recorded was
under her bedding and that after the Prophel died, a domestic
animal [20] got into the room and gobbled up the sheet while the

[20] Dajin can mean any kind of domestic animal, including fowl,
sheep, or goat. A narrative in Ibrahim b. Ishaq al Harbis
Gharib al hadith makes it more specific, as it uses the word
shal, that is sheep or goat (see Zamakshari, al Kashaf,
vol 3 p 518 footnote)
The same is in Qutaybas understanding from the word dajin
in Tawil mukhtalif al hadith, p 310, apparently because
of the context, since it is said that the animal ate the
sheet of paper.
Also see Sulaym b. Qays al Hilali, Kitab Sulaymn b. Qays,
p 108
Al Fadl b. Shadahn, al Idah, p 211
Abd al Jalil al Qazwini, p 133

household was preoccupied with his funeral. [21] Umar also

[21] Ahmad, vol 4 p 269
Ibn Maja, vol 1 p 626
Ibn Qutayba, Tawil, p 310
Shafi'i, Kitab al Umm, vol 5 p 23, vol 7 p 208

remembered other verses he thought dropped out (saqata) from
the Qur'an [22] or were lost, including one on being dutiful to

[22] Mabani, p 99
Itqan, vol 3 p 84 (See Also And al Razzaq vol 7 p 379-80;
Ibn Abi Shayba, vol 14 p 564, where the _expression Faqadnah,
"we lost it", is used)
The _expression "saqata" is also used by Aisha in the case of
another phrase that alledgly "dropped out" from the Quran. See
Ibn Maja, vol 1 p 625 (See also Itqan, vol 3 p 70)
It is also used by Malik (Zarkashi, vol 1 p 263).

parents[23] and another on jihad.[24] His claim regarding the first

[23] Abd al Razzaq, vol 9 p 50
Ahmad, vol 1 p 47, 55
Ibn Abi Shayba, vol 7 p 431
Bukhari, vol 4 p 306
Ibn Salama, p 22
Itqan, vol 3 p 84
Zarkashi, vol 1 p 39 (Also quoted from Abu Bakr)

[24] Muhasibi, p 403
Mabani, p 99
Itqan, vol 3 p 84

of the two was supported by three other early authorities on the
Qur'an: Zayd b. Thabit, 'Abd Allah b. 'Abbas, and Ubayy b.
Ka'b.[25] Anas b. Malik remembered a verse which was revealed

[25] Abd al Razzaq, vol 9 p 52
Muhasibi, p 400
Itqan, vol 3 p 84

in the occasion of some Muslims who were killed in a battle, but
was later "lifted".[26] Umar's learned son, 'Abd Allah [27] as

[26] Muhasibi, p 399
Tabari, Jami, vol 2 p 479

[27] Itqan, vol 3 p 81-82

well as some later scholars [28] maintained that much of the Qur'an

[28] Ibn Abi Dawud, p 23 quoting Ibn Shihab (al Zuhri)
Itqan, vol 5 p 179 quoting Sufyan al Thawri
Ibn Qutaybah, Tawil, p 313
Ibn Lubb, Falh al bab, p 92

had perished before the collection was made.

Similar reports specifically addressed the official Uthmanic res-
cension of the Qur'an. They reported that many prominent
Companions could not find in that official text portions of the reve-
lation they had themselves heard from the Prophet, or found them
in a different form. Ubayy b. Ka'b, for instance, recited sura 98
(al Bayyina) in a form he claimed to have heard from the Pro-
phet. It included two verses unrecorded in the Uthmanic
text. (29) He also thought that the original version of sura 33 (al-

[29] Ahmad, vol 5 p 132
Tirmidhi, vol 5 p 370
Hakim, vol 2 p 224
Itqan, vol 3 p 83

Ahzab) had been much longer, from which he specifically remem-
bered the stoning verse that is missing from the Uthmanic
text.[30] His claim was supported by Zayd b. Thabit,[31] by

[30] Ahmad, vol 5 p 132
Muhasibi, p 405
Bayhaqi, vol 8 p 211
Hakim, vol 2 p 415
Itqan, vol 3 p 82 (the same claim about the size of the Sura and it
included the stoning verse is quoted from Umar anmd Ikrima in
Suyuti, al Durre Manthur, vol 5 p 180)
Zarkasi, vol 2 p 35, where the verse is said to to have been in
Sura 25 (al Nur), and with Mabani, p 82, where Sura 7 (al Aaraf) is
mentioned instead. This latter is however a slip of the pen or mis
spelling as evidenced by the author's later mention of the Sura al
Ahzab in p 83 and 86

Aisha who reported that during the Prophet's lifetime the sura
was about three times as long, although when Uthman collected
the Qur'an he found only what was made available in his text,[32]

[32] Al Raghib al Isfahani, Muhadarat al Udaba, vol 4 p 434
Suyuti, al Durre Manthur, vol 5 p 180
Itqan, Suyuti, vol 1 p 226

and by Hudhayfa b. al-Yaman (who found some seventy verses
missing in the new official text, verses that he himself used to
recite during the lifetime of the Prophet.[33] Hudhayfa also

[33] Suyuti, al Durre Manthur, vol 5 p 180, quoting from Bukhari book
Kitab at Tarikh

contended that Sura 9 (al-Bara'a in its Uthmanic form was per-
haps one-fourth[34] or one-third[35] of what it had been during the

[34] Hakim, vol 2 p 331
Haytami, Majam al Zawaid, vol 7 p 28-29
Itqan, vol 3 p 84

time of the Prophet, an idea later supported the prominent
2nd/8th century jurist and traditionist Malik b. Anas, founder of
the Maliki school of Islamic law.[36] There are also reports that

[36] Zarkshi, vol 1 p 263
Itqan, vol 1 p 226

Suras 15 (al-Hijr) and 24 (al-Nur) had once been of a different
length.[37] And Abu Musa al-Ash'ari recalled the existence of two

[37] Sulaym, p 108
Abu Mansur al Tabrisi, al Intijaj, vol 1 p 222, 286
Zarkshi, vol 2 p 35

long suras (one verse of each he still remembered) that he could not
find in the present text.[38] One of the two verses he recalled ("If

[38] Muslim, vol 2 p 726
Muhasibi, p 405
Abu Nuaym, Hilyat al Awliya, vol 1 p 257
Bayhaqi, Dalai, vol 7 p 156
Itqan, vol 3 p 83

the son of Adam had two fields of gold he would seek a third
one...") is also quoted from other Companions such as Ubayy [39],
Ibn Masud [40], and Ibn 'Abbas [41]. Maslama b. Mukhallad al-

[39] Ahmad, vol 5 p 131-32
Muhasibi, p 400-01
Tirmidhi, vol 5 p 370
Hakim, vol 2 p 224

[40] Raghib, vol 4 p 433

[41] Itqan, vol 1 p 227

Ansari orfered two further verses that are not in the Uthmanic
text [42] and Aisha came forward with a third [43]. Two short

[42] Itqan, vol 3 p 84

[43] Abd al Razzaq, vol 7 p 470
Ibn Maja, vol 1 p 625, 626

chapters known as Sural al-Hafd and Sura al-Khal were recorded
in the collections of Ubayy [44], Ibn Abbas and Abu
Musa [45]. They were allegedly also known to Umar [46] and other

[44] Muhasibi, p 400-1
Ibn al Nadim, p 30
Raghib, vol 4 p 433
Zarkashi, vol 2 p 37
Haytami, vol 7 p 157
Itqan, vol 1 p 226, 227

[45] Itqan, vol 1 p 227

[46] Itqan, vol 1 p 226-7

Companions [47] although no trace of either chapter is found in the

[47] Itqan, vol 1 p 227, vol 3 p 85

of official text. Ibn Masud did not have Suras 1, 113, and 114 in his
collection [48] but he had some extra words and phrases that were

[48] Ibn Abi Shayba, vol 6 p 146-47
Ahmad, vol 5, p 129-30
Ibn Qutayba, Tawail mushkil al Quran, p 33-34
Ibn al Nadim, p 29
Baqillani, al Intisar, p 184
Raghib, vol 4 p 434
Zarkashi, vol 1 p 251, vol 2 p 128
Haytami, vol 7 p 149-50
Itqam, vol 1 p 224, 226, 270-73

missing from the Uthmanic text [49]. He and many other Compa-

[49] Arthur Jeffrey, Materials for the History of the Text of the
Quran, the Old Codices, p 20-113

nions also preserved some verses that differed from the official
text [50]. There were also widely transmitted reports that after

[50] See the lists, Ibid, p 114-238

the death of the Prophet, 'Ali put all the parts of the Qur'an
together [51] and presented it to the Companions; hut they rejected

[51] Ibn Sa'd, vol 2 p 338
Ibn Abi Shayba, vol 6 p 148
Yaqubi, vol 2 p 135
Ibn Abu Dawud, p 10
Ibn al Nadim, p 30
Abu Hilal al Askari, vol 1 p 219-20
Abu Buaym, vol 1 p 67
Ibn Abd al Barr, al Istiab, p 333-34
Ibn Juzay, vol 1 p 4
Ibn Abi al Hadid, vol 1 p 27
Itqan, vol 1 p 204, 248
al Kafi, al Kulayni, vol 8 p 18

it, and he had to take it back home [52]. These reports also sugges-

[52] Sulaym, p 72, 108
Basair al Darajat, p 193
Kulayni, vol 2 p 633
Abu Mansur al Tabrisi, vol 1 p 107, 255-28
Ibn Shahrashub, Manaqib Al Abi Talib, vol 2 p 42
Yaqubi, vol 2 p 135-6

ted thal there were substantial differences between the various
versions of the Qur'an.
************ ********* ********* ********* ********* ********* ********* *********
____________ _________ _________ ______
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| o_,_7 _|| . _o_7 _|| 4_|_|| o_w_, |
|( : / (_) / ( . |
|___________ _________ _________ _______|

Early Debates on the Integrity of the Quran (Part II)

It is universally acknowledged in the Islamic tradilion-based
on the collective memory of the early generations of Muslims
rather than simply on a number of isolated reports that Uthman
promulgated an official rescension of the Qur'an and banned all
other versions. There were certainly differences between that
official Quran and other early codices as there were differences
among the variant codices themselves. It was, after all, those
differences that necessitated the establihment of a standard and
universally accepted text.

It is conceivable that close associates of the Prophet, especially
those who had joined him during his years in Mecca, still remembe-
red parts of the revelation that had not been included by the Pro-
phet in the Qur'an. It is also plausible to speculate that Ali
whose version of the Scripture might have been one of the most
complete and authentic, had offered it to Uthman to be conse-
crated as the official text, but that his offer was rejected by the
caliph who preferred to select and combine elements of all the
competing early codices. This in turn may have caused 'Ali to
withdraw his manuscript as a basis for compiling of the official
rescension. Another Companion, 'Abd Allah b. Mas'ud, is also
reported to have stood aloof from the process and to have declined
to offer his own text.[53]

[53] Ibn Abi Dawud, p 15-17
Ibn Asakir, Tarikh madinat Dimashq, vol 39 p 87-91

The foregoing account of the first compilation of the Qur'an is,
otherwise, extremely problematic [54]. Despite the significance of

[54] A.T Welch p 404-5 and the sources quoted therein

this report, it does not appear tn any work written by scholars of
the 2nd/8th and early 3rd/9th centuries [55]. Some details of the

[55] Thus the story doesn't appear in for instance in Tabaqat of
Ibn Sa'd in sections of Abu Bakr, Umar and Zayd b. Thabit, nor
in Musnad Ahmad Hanbal or Fadail as Sahaba where he gathered so
may reports about their virtues and good services to Islam.

story reportedly took place later at the time that Uthman ordered
the creation of a standard Qur'an [56]. Several reports categori-

[56] Bukhari, vol 3 p 392-93, vol 4 p 398-99
Tirmidhi, vol 4 p 347
Ibn Abi Dawud, p 7-9, 20, 29 with Bukhari vol 3 p 393-94
Tirmidhi, vol 4 p 348
Ibn Abi Dawud, p 17, 19, 24-26, 31
Ibn Asakir, Tarikh, Biography of Uthman p 236

cally deny that any official attempt to collect the Qur'an was made
before 'Uthman's time [57], an assertion reportedly supported by

[57] Ibn Asakir, Biography of Uthman, p 170
Zarkashi, vol 1 p 241
Other reports suggest that the collection of the Quran had
already been started during the time of Umar, but he died
before the project was completed during the caliphate of
Uthman (Abu Hilal al Askari, vol 1 p 219)

the collective recollections if the Muslim community [58]. Dif-

[58] Zarkashi, vol 1 p 235
Itqan, vol1 p 211
Ibn Asakir, p 243-46

ferent versions of the story reveal major contradictions in regards
to some of its main particulars. The name of the Companion
whose testimony alone was accepted [59] and the precise verses in

[59] He is (a) Khuazyma b, Thabit al Ansari in Bukhari vol 3 p 310, 394
Tirmidhi, vol 4 p 347
Abu Bakr al Marwasi, p 103
Ibn Abi Dawud, p 7, 8, 9, 20, 29, 31
Bayhaqi, Dalial, vol 7 p 150
and (b) Abu Khuzayma (Aws b. Yazid) in Bukhari, vol 3 p 392-93
Tirmidhi, vol 4 p 348
Abu Bakr al Marwazi, p 99
Ibn Abi Dawud, p 19
Bayhaqi, Dalail, vol 7 p 149
and (c) an un-identified man of Ansar in Ibn Abi Dawud, p 8
Tabari, Jami, vol 14 p 588
and (d) Unayy in Ibn Abi Dawud p 9, 30
Khatib, Talkhis al Mustadrak, vol 1 p 403
There are also reports which indicate that Ubayy not only knew these
verses he knew that they were the last to have been revealed to the
Prophet, too (Tabari, Jami, vol 14 p 588-89)

question [60] vary. Contradictory accounts are also given of the

[60] It is the last two verses of Sura 9 in Bukhari, vol 3 p 392-93
Tirmidhi, vol 4 p 347
ABu Bakr al Marwazi, p 99, 103
Ibn Abi Dawud, p 7, 9, 11, 20, 29, 30, 31
Tabari, Jami, vol 14 p 588
Bayhaqi, Dalail, vol 7 p 149
and Verse 23 of Sura 33 in Bukhari, vol 3 p 310, 393-94
Tirmidhi, vol 4 p 348
Ibn Abi Dawud, p 8, 19
Bayhaqi, Dalail, vol 7 p 150
Khatib, Mudih, vol 1 p 276

role of Zayd b. Thabit in the compilation process [61]. The inclu-

[61] In the above cited account of the collection of the Quran he is
the one who undertook the task of putting the Quran together in
two stages during the times of Abu Bakr and Uthman. Some other
reports ascribe the collection of the Quran, including Zayd's
participation in it, to the period of Uthman (Bukhari, vol 3
p 393-94; Tirmidhi, vol 4 p 348; Ibn Abi Dawud, p 31; Ibn Asakir,
Biography of Uthman, p 234-36)
Other reports don't mention his name at all (Ibn Abi Dawud, p 10-11)
Yets others assert that he had already collected the Quran doing the
time of the Prophet, putting together all the fragments of it which
were recorded on various sorts of primitive writing material, as in
Tirmidhi, vol 5 p 390
Hakim, vol 2 p 229, 611
In another report, however, he is quoted as stating by the time the
Prophet died, the Quran had not been collected, as in
Itqan, vol 1 p 202

sion of the clause related to the acceptance of the testimony of one
man alone is an obvious attempt to make the story more accep-
table through references to the familiar and widely quoted story
Khuzayma Dhu 'l-Shahadstayan, a man whos single testimony
was aid to hav ebeen accpted by the Prophet as equivalent to the
testimony of two witnesses [62]. In a variation of this story, in

[62] Bukhari, vol 3 p 310
Ibn Abi Dawud, p 29
Khatib, Mudih, vol 1 p 276
Itqan, vol 1 p 206

which the witness is an unidentified man from Ansar, Umar is
reported to have accepted the testimony of this single witness on
the grounds that the message of the verse he orfered was, in
Umar's judgement, true since the verse described the Prophet
with qualities that he had really possessed [63]. In other varia-

[63] Tabari, Jami, vol 16, p 588

tions. The verse or verses were said to have been accepted because
'Umar [64], Uthman [65] or Zayd [66] themselves testified that they,

[64] Ibn Abi Dawud, p 30
[65] Ibid, p 31
[66] Ibid, p 8, 19, 29

too, had heard those Verses from the Prophet; or, alternatively,
because the caliph had generally ordered that anybody's testimony
be accepted provided that he took an oath that he had personally
heard from the Prophet the verse or part that he offered for inclu-
sion [67]. Moreover, the story contradicts numerous and widely

[67] Ibn Asakir, p 236, where the episode is ascibed to the period
of Uthman who asked the Muslism to come forward with whatever
part of the Quran they had in hand. The Muslims came forward
with whatever primitive writing material on wwhich they had
recorded parts of the Quran. The Uthman asked every single one
to swear that he had personally heard what he had offered as a
part of the Quran from the Prophet. He then ordered the collected
material to be put together as Scriptures.

In an obvious attempt to purge the sotry of these terrible contr-
adictions a variation of it was authored by some later transmitters
that suggested that (a) the collection of the Quran started during
the reign of Abu Bakr but could not be completed before his death
and was put together during the reigns of Umar, that (b), Zayd was
the one who wrote the Quran first during the time of Abu Bakr on
primitive writing material and then on paper during the time of Umar,
that (c), there was no question of testimony or witness, but rather
Zayd himself after completing the text once went ovr it and could
not find Verse 33:23. He then looked around for it, untill he found
the record of it with Khuzayma b. Thabit. He then went over the text
once more and this time noticed that the Verses 9:12-129 were missing,
so he looked around again untill he found the record with another
man who was incidently called Khuzayma as well. When he went over the
text for the third time, he found no problem and so the text was
completed. (Tabari, Jami, vol 1 p 59-61)

transmitted reports [68] which assert that a number of the Compa-

[68] The list of the early collectors of the Quran is different in
different sources, for instance, Ibn Sa'd, vol 2 p 112-14
Ibn al NAdim, Kitab al Fihrist, p 30
Tabarani, al Mujam al Kabir, vol 2 p 292
Baqillani, p 88-90
Dhahabi, al Maridat al qurra al kibar, vol 1 p 27
Zarkashim vol 1 p 242-43
Qurtubi, vol 1 p 57
Itqan, vol 1 p 248-49, quoting Abu Ubayd in his Kitab al Qira'at

nions, notably Ali, Abd Allah b. Masud and Ubayy b. Kab, had
collected the Qur'an during the time of the Prophet [69]. Further-

[69] In order to remove the obvious contradictions between these
reports and the story in question, the supporters of the story
have offered two suggestions. According to one, those who are
said to have collcted the Quran during the time of the Prophet,
had each made a collection of only a part of the revelation, not
a complete version. According to the other, the word "collected",
had to be understood to mean that those Companions memorized the
Quran during the time of the Prophet, not they they had put a
complete record of it together. As mentioned in
Ibn Abi Dawud, p 10
Itqan, vol 1 p 204

more, a clear and suspicious attempt seems to have been made to
somehow credit the first three caliphs with achieving the compila-
tion of the sacred scripture of Islam to the exclusion of the fourth,
************ ********* ********* ********* ********* ********* ********* *********
____________ _________ _________ ______
| |
| || || | || |
| o_,_7 _|| . _o_7 _|| 4_|_|| o_w_, |
|( : / (_) / ( . |
|___________ _________ _________ _______|

Early Debates on the Integrity of the Quran (Part III)

This latter point, when compared with the reports cited above
on Ali's collection of the Quran after the death of the Prophet,
may shed some light on the origins of the story. Taking into
account some of the early political, and later polemical, disputes
within the Muslim community, one may suggest the existence of a
multi-stage process in the formation of that account. There was
apparently a widely circulating rumor In the first century ot the
Hijra to the effect that Ali did not attend the public meeting at
which Abu Bakr was declared ruler after the death of the Prophet,
and that it also took some time before he swore his allegiance to
Abu Bakr. From early times the partisans of Ali have inter-
preted this as a reflection of his dissatisfaction with the choice of
Abu Bakr and used this conclusion as a basis from which to attack
the allege consensus of thc Companions which was put forward by
the supporters of the caliphs as the legal hasis for the validity of
Abu Bakr's succession to caliphate. This line of argument seems
also have appeared quite early; possibly even before the decline of
the Umayyads in Lhe early 2nd/8th century whem sectarian debates
began to flare in the Muslim communily [70]. With the decline of

[70] For instance the poem attributed to Ali in the Sharif al Radi,
Nah al Balagha, p 503, "If you (claim that you) have come to
power on the basis of consultation, how did then it happen while
those who had to be consulted were absent."

the Umayyads, 'Ali could no longer be ignored and a response had
to be found. Many of the reports which alleged that 'Ali retreated
from public life after the death of the prophet in order to put the
Qur'an together mention this as the explanation for his failure to
tender an early allegiance to the caliph [71]. It scems very

[71] Ibn sa'd, vol 2 p 101
Ibn Abi Shayba, vol 6 p 148
Abu Hilal al Askari, vol 1 p 219-20
Ibn ABi Dawud, p 10
Itqan, vol 1 p 204

likely [72], therefore, that these reports were composed-using as

[72] Alternatively, there might actually have existed some rumours
suggesting that Ali, having noticed that the Seniors of Quraysh
had chosen one among themselves as the succesor to the Prophet and
having decided to withdraw from the public, kept himself busy with
the Quran and took that as an excuse not to participate in any
social activity. The Sunnites, however, put forward that excuse as
the real cause and denied that 'Ali was unahppy with the Quraysh
process of Caliph making.

background material some pre-existing reports and recollections
concerning Ali [73] - the sectarian purpose of suggesting that

[73] Ali was among one of the early collectors of the Quran, one of
those who collected it during the life time of the Prophet as
mentioned in Ibn Asakir, vol 39 p 80.
Ali was known for his vast knowledge and of special dedication
to the Quran. (Ibn Sa'd vol 1 p 204)
In his codex of the Quran he had reportedly indicated the verses
which were abrogated and those which abrogated them (Itqan, vol 1
p 204).
The exact timing of when he had offered the codex for the official
consecration was already blurred by the early 2nd/8th Century. The
Shi'ites were themselves were now attributing it to the time of
Umar (Sulaymn, p 108, also quoted by Abu Mansur al Tabrisi, vol 1
p 228, vol 2 p 7), but a vague memory of it was presumably still

Ali's delay was not a sign of his dissatisfaction. Instead, Ali was
quoted as telling Abu Bakr (when the caliph asked him whether he
had failed to swear allegiance because he was unhappy with Abu
Bakr's election) that he "had vowed to God not to put on his
outside garment except for attending the communal prayer, until
such a time as he had put the Qur'an together." [74]

[74] Abu Mansur al Tabrisi, vol 1 p 71
The point that these reports had an anti Shi'ite polemical
application can also be attested to by the fact that in some
of its later versions, the report is quoted by the Sunnites
on the authority of Jafar al Sadiq, who quoted it from his fore
fathers (Abu Hilal al Askari, vol 1 p 219)
It was a common practice in the sectarian reports to put the idea
on the tongue of the respected authority of the opponent, a practice
whioch can also be observed in the cases which shortly follow in
the discussion above. (See also Kashshi, p 393-97)

The episode, however, created other problems for the supporters
of orthodoxy for it added another item to the list of Ali's special
privileges used by the Shi'ites to argue with for his claim to the
caliphate. In addition to all his other alleged merits, he was now
the one who had undertaken the critical task of assembling the
Islamic scripture after the death of the Prophet [75]. This was

[75] Kitab Mihnat Amir al Muminin (an early Shi'ite text preserved
in Pseudo Mufid, al Ikhtisas, p 157-75), p 164
Sulaymn, p 113, 120

potentially a dangerous weapon in the hands of his partisans in
sectarian debates. The partisans of 'Ali might have already used
it against the Uthmaniyya, to counter their argument in support
of 'Uthman on the basis that he was the one who established the
official and standard Qur'an. For the Uthmaniyya that constitu-
ted a real challenge that they met, as in many other cases, by
seeking to undermine Shi'ite claims for the special quality of Ali
or the House of the Prophet. Some examples are as follows [76]:

[76] For other interesting examples see Ibn Asakir, Biography of
Uthman, p 146-68. 290-94

1. Many reports suggest that the Prophet chose Ali as his bro-
ther [77] at the time that he established the "brothering" among his
followers [78]. A counter report claims this status for Abu
Bakr [79], though it is widely believed that the Prophet made Abu
Bakr and ' Umar brothers [80]. Many other reports quote the Pro-
phet as saying that "if I could adopt an intimate friend I would
adopt Abu Bakr, but your colleague (i.e. the Prophet) is already
taken by God as His intimate friend." [81] These seem to have
been composed to counter the claim of Ali's selection as the Pro-
ephet's brother.

[77] Nur Allah al Tastari, Ihqaq al haqq, vol 4 p 171-217; vol 6 p 461-86
p 450-17; vol 20 p 221-55
Abd al Husayn al Amini, vol 3 p 113-25
[78] Muakhat in the Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd ed, vol 7 p 253-54
[79] Ahmad b, Handal, Fadail al Sahaba, p 99, 166-7, 378
Bukhari, col 3 p 113-25
[80] Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqat, vol 3 p 123
[81] Ahmad, Fadail, p 99, 166-67, 177, 183-84, 378-79, 411

2. The partisans of Ali regarded him as the most excellent
among the companions of the Prophet. Indeed, there are many
indications in the history of the Prophet that Ali was in fact one
of the pre-eminent Companions. An obviously pro-Uthmaniyya
report, however, emphasized that during the time of the Prophet
only Abu Bakr ' Umar and ' Uthman were pre-eminent. All
others followed with no distinctions of status or eminence. [82]

[82] Ahmad, Fadail, p 86-92
Biography of Uthman, p 153-59
Bukhari, vol 2 p 418

3. In an oft-quoted statement ascribed to the Prophet, he is
reported as having called his two grandsons by Fatima- al Hasan
and al-Husayn-the "two masters of the youth of Para-
dise [83]. Another report from the Prophet applies the same epi-
thet to Ali [84]. A counter report calls Abu Bakr and Umar the
to masters of the middle-aged of the paradise [85].

[83] Tustari, vol 10 p 544-95; vol 19 p 232-51
[84] Ibn Asakir, Tarikh madinal Dimashq, Section on the Biography of Ali,
vol 2 p 260
[85] Ibn Sa'd, vol 3 p 124
Ahmad, Fadail, p 158-59, 771, 774, 780, 788
Daylami, vol 1 p 530

4. A widely circulating statement attributed to the Prophet sta-
ted that he was the city of knowledge for which 'Ali was the
gate [86]. A counter statement described Abu Bakr as the founda-
tion of the city, 'Umar as the wall and 'Uthman as the ceiling [87].

[86] Tustari, vol 5 p 468-515; vol 16 p 277-309; vol 21 p 415-28
Amini, vol 6 p 61-81
[87] Daylami, vol 1 p 76

5. It is reported that during the early years of the Prophet's
stay at Medina, the Companions who had their houses around the
mosque of the Prophet had opened exit doors from their houses
into the mosque in order to make it easier for themselves to attend
the communal prayer there with the Prophet. According to a
widely quoted report, the Prophet later ordered all those doors to
be closed, excepting only the door that led from the house of Ali,
which was virtually the door leading from the house of the Pro-
phet's daughter [88]. (The exception was not, therefore, to signify
a merit or to establish a special status for Ali himself.) A counter
report, however, tried to establish that it was the door from the
house of Abu Bakr which was the exception [89].

[88] Ahmad, Fadail, p 581-82
Tustari, vol 5 p 540-86; vol 16 p 332-75; vol 19 p 243-55;
Amini vol 6 p 209-16
[89] Bukhari, vol 2 p 418;
Ahmad, Fadail, p 70-71, 98, 152, 379

6. It is unanimiously believed that during a ceremonial impreca-
tion that took place between the Prophet and the Christians of
Najran towards the end of the Prophet's life [90] he brought with
him the members of his immediate family 'Ali, Fatima, and their
two sons [91]. This clearly followed the traditional rules for the
Arabs' custom of the mutual curse, which required each party to
attend in the company of his own household. A counter report
however, asserts that the Prophet. was accompanied to the cere-
mony by Abu Bakr and his family, 'Umar and his family and
Uthman and his family [92].

[91] Tustari, vol 3 p 46-62; vol 9 p 70-91; vol 14 p 131-47
vol 20 p 84-87
[92] Ibn Asakir, Biography of Uthman, p 168-89, quoting on the authority
of Imam Jafar al Sadiq, who acordingly related it from his father.
As noted above, this was a common phenomenon in this genre of material
which was auhtored for anto Shi'ite polemical purposes.

7. According to a widely transmitted report, the Prophet descri-
bed Fatima, Ali and their two sons as constituting his own house-
hold [93]. This definition of the Prophet's house is supported by
almost all early Muslim authorities [94]. A clearly pro Uthma-
niyya report, however, quoted the Prophet as saying that Ali,
al-Hasan, al-Husayn and Fatima were his own household while
Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman and A'isha were the household of
God [95].

[93] Tustari, vol 2 501-62; vol 3 p 513-31; vol 9 p 1-69; vol 14 p 40-105
vol 18 p 359-83
[94] Tabari, Jami al Bayan, vol 22 p 6-8
[95] Daylami, vol 1 p 532
Tabari, Jami, vol 22 p 8 quotes that Ikrima, a tabi'i well known for
his anti Alid tendencies was crying in the market, that the household
of the Prophet were his wives only.

It seems safe to assume that this same model was followed with
respect to the reports about Ali's collection of the Qur'an and that
the story in question was composed as part of an anti-Shl'ite pole-
mic. The process seems to have beglin with assertions that, with
the exception of Uthman, none of the caliphs or any of the
Companions collected the Qur'an [96] some made the point more

[96] See above footnote 57

emphatically and stipulated that Ali, in particular, passed away
before he could collect it [97]. (In reality, of course, not only did

[97] Ibn Asakir, Biography of Uthman, p 170

Ali witness the collection of the Qur'an, he did not die until years
after the official Qur'an had been established. ) Another report
asserted that the first person to collect the Qur'an was Salim, a
client of Abu Hudayfa, who after the death of the Prophet
"vowed to God not to put on his outside garment until such a time
as he had put the Quran together."[98] This is exactly the state-

[98] Itqan, vol 1 p 205, quoting Ibn Ashta in his Kitab al Masahif

ment attributed to Ali in other reports. Salim was among those
who lost their lives in the battle of Yamama[99]. Other reports

[99] Ibn Abd al Barr, p 562

came forward with the straight forward assertion that the first to
collect the Qur'an was Abu Bakr.[100] Employing popular beliefs

[100] Ibn Abi Shayba, vol 6 p 148
Ibn Abi Dawud, both quoting the report from Ali

among Muslims concerning 'Uthman's establishment of the stan-
dard Qur'an-including the role of Zayd b. Thabit as the project's
main coordinator - the role of Abu Bakr in the collection of the
Quran was then developed to what is seen in the above-cited
account which, at the same time, reserves a major role for Umar
as well, in the process.

To be completed...